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Name 2 materials supplied by digestion.
Carbohydrates & Fats
What are Carbohydrates?
Are starches and sugars primarily for energy (4kcal/g)
What are fats?
Fats are more concentrated in fuel than carb's. (9kcal/g)
What is the digestive system also know as?
- Alimentary canal/tract
- Digestive Tract
- Gastrointestinal Tract
- Gastrointestinal System
Name 2 digestive enzymes from the stomach?
Pepsin and Hydrochloric Acid
What is the structure of the large instestine?
- Cecum - receives food remnants
- Colon - 3 parts, ascending , transverse, and descending
What is the function of the large intestine?
Main function of the large intestine is to reabsorb water.
What does the pancreas produce?
The pancreas produces enzymes that digest fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. It also produces insulin and glucagon to regulate sugar metabolism.
- Moving of food molecules into blood.
- Primarily done through villi in small intestines
What is hunger?
Desire for food related to physical need.
*What is appetite?
A desire for food not related to physical need.
What are the 3 different types of eating disorders?
- Anorexia Nervosa
What is Anorexia?
Symptom describing lack of hunger, or disinterest in eating.
What in Anorexia Nervosa?
Eating disorder characterized by abnormal body image and improper eating habits.
What is Bulimia
Binge - Purge
What are the 2 types of infections of the Salivary Glands?
*What is Leukoplakia?
Thickened white patches on tongue or buccal (cheek) surfaces.
*Drug that is effective against the herpes virus?
Name 2 disorders of the esophagus and stomach?
*What is GERD?
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
- Disease that causes backwash into the esophagus.
What is Dysphagia?
*What are the major ingredients in antacids?
- Aluminum salts
- Calcium carbonate
- Magnesium salts
- Sodium Bicarbonate
Where is your vomiting reflex?
In the emetic center of your brain located inside the medulla oblongata. CTZ
What is the primary pathway for vomiting reflex?
Cerebral cortex stimulation and toxins in blood/GI tract
In what form is Scopolamine (Transderm Scop) available?
Available in a 4 layered film patch
What is the adult dose of Trimethobenzamide (Tigan)?
250mg three to four times a day.
What was the first serotonin receptor antagonist approved for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy agents?
What 2 drugs are selective serotonin inhibitors?
*What type of agent is Ipecac?
What are complications of Ipecac?
Active ingredient is cardiotoxic and chronic use can result in serious complication including death.
From what time to what time does acid secretion reach its peak?
10pm to early morning
Name 2 cytoprotective agents. These medication provides
*What is sucralfate and what does it do?
It is a topical agent that forms protective acid-resistant shield in the ulcer crater.
What is a side effect of Misoprostol?
Side effects include stomach distress and diarrhea.
What are Proton Pump Inhibitors?
Suppress gastric acid by inhibiting Hydrogen/Potassium APase enzyme system.
What do H2 antagonists do?
Treat heartburn, acid indigestion, sour stomach, GERD duodenal/ gastric ulcers and gastric hypersecretory states.
*What is H Pylori and when should it be treated?
- It is a causal factor in gastritis and duodenal ulcers and to a lesser extent gastric ulcer.
- H Pylori should only be treated once proven that you have either gastritis or duodenal ulcers.
How many different drug treatments for H Pylori?
*What are the 2 triple drug treatments?
- 1st Option
- Bismuth subsalicylate
- 2nd Option
Name an Intestinal Disorder
Cancer in colon and rectum
*What is an indicator of colon or rectal cancer?
- Occult Blood
- Blood hidden in the stool; can't see unless tested with a guaiac test; common test to aid in diagnosis of cancer.
*What drugs cause constipation?
What is lactulose made of and how does it work?
- Made of galactose, fructose and other sugars.
- Metabolized to organic acids and produce an osmotic effect (BM).
- Increased fluid accumulation, distention peristalsis and BM within 24-72 hrs
What is used for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy and before barium enumia for radiologic exams?
- Polyethylene glycol - electrolyte solution
- Go Lightly
What drug inhibits the intestinal propulsion by acting directly on intestinal smooth muscles and thus decreases transit time?
*Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or other medical conditions and sometimes drugs?
How is Hepatitis B transferred by?
By IV drug abuse, blood product, and unsterilized equipment.
*Name the drugs that dissolve cholesterol.
- Monooctanoin - Dissolves cholesterol - based gallstones
- Ursodiol - Oral capsule to dissolve cholesterol gallstones in uncomplicated patients.
*What are the 2 Pancreatic Drugs?
- Pancreatin and pancrelipase.
- Both contain enzymes and are not interchangeable in therapy.
*Absorption of nutrients happens in which part of the body?
*Hydrogen peroxide is a week antibacterial to clean wounds. T or F
* This medication contains galactose, fructose and other sugars used to treat constipation.
*Primary source of energy used by the body?
*This type of laxative is an agent that facilitates the mixing of water and fatty masses into ficies.
*Opioid used to treat diarrhea?