Blunt tendon tip (longitudinal view). Mass (transverse view). Refractive shadowing. Nonvisualization. Loss of fibrillar architecture. Fluid collection.
Sonographic signs of full-thickness rotator cuff tear?
Anechoic or hypoechoic defect. Focal superficial contour abnormality. Compressibility. Nonvisualization.
Characteristics of pseudoaneurysms on ultrasound?
Complex fluid collection. Single of multiple loculations. Visible pulsations on gray-scale imaging. Internal luminal flow on color Doppler. To and fro flow in the neck.
Characteristics of iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas at ultrasound?
Usually located below femoral artery bifurcation. Perivascular tissue vibration. Low-resistance flow in supplying artery near fistula. High-velocity flow at site of communication. Turbulent and/or arterialized flow in draining vein near fistula.
Extremity artery waveform?
"High-resistance flow. Typically triphasic waveform: Antegrade systole, retrograde early diastole, antegrade in mid diastole, absent flow in end diastole."
Extremity venous waveform?
Respiratory phasicity. Variable cardiac related pulsatility.
Factors that decrease chance of scrotal malignancy?
Extratesticular. Nonpalpable. Simple cystic appearance. No detectable vascularity.
Factors that increase chance of scrotal malignancy?
Intratesticular. Palpable. Solid or complex cyst. Detectable internal vascularity.
95% infrarenal. Majority are fusiform. Mural thrombus common with large aneurysm. Surgery considered when >5 cm. AP diameter measured on sagittal images. Transverse diameter measured on coronal images.
"Defects of mid abdomen. Covered by thin amnioperitoneal membrane. Large type contains liver, usually stomach and bowel. Small type contains only bowel located at the base of umbilical cord. Associations: Structural abnormalities and chromosomal abnormalities."
"Paraumbilical, usually right lower quadrant. No covering membrane. Protruding bowel floats freely in amniotic fluid. No associated anomalies or abnormal karyotype."