Med-Surg Exam 2

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Med-Surg Exam 2
2013-05-13 18:31:08
med surg exam

Lessons 4-7
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  1. Body fluids are in constant _________.
    body fluids are in constant motion
  2. Fluids are classified into two major compartments:
    • intracellular
    • extracellular
  3. Intracellular is:
    • fluid within a cell
    • most of the body's fluids are found within the cell
  4. Extracellular fluid is:
    Two types of extracellular fluid are:
    • fluid outside the cell
    • intravascular fluid:  in blood vessels in the form of plasma or serum
    • interstitial fluid:  in fluid surrounding cells, including lymph
  5. Extracellular fluid is mainly responsible for:
    transport of nutrients and wastes throughout the body
  6. The largest portion of body weight is:
  7. The percentage of body water _________ with age.
  8. Females have a _________ percentage of body water (__%?) than males (__%?) because women have more _____ than men and fat cells contain _________ water than other cells.
    • lower
    • 50%
    • 60%
    • less
  9. Percentage of water is affected by:
    • age
    • sex
    • body fat
  10. Obese individuals have a _________ percentage of body water because the increased number of fat cells.
  11. The main electrolye in extracellular fluid is:
  12. The main electrolyte in intracellular fluid is:
  13. Define solutes:
    substances that dissolve in water
  14. Two types of solutes are _________ and _________.
    electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
  15. _________ is a substance that develops an electrical charge when dissolved in water.
  16. Examples of electrolytes are:
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • chloride
    • bicarbonate
    • magnesium
  17. Electrolytes maintaining _________ between positive and negative charges.
  18. For every positively charged cation, there is a _________ charged anion.
  19. Cations and anions combine to _________ one another.
  20. Electrolytes are measured in _________.
  21. _________ is the most abundant electrolyte and the primary electrolyte in _________ fluid.
    • sodium
    • extracellular
  22. Sodium plays a major role in:
    • regulating body fluid volumes
    • muscular activity
    • nerve impulse conduction
    • acid-base balance
  23. "_________ goes where sodium goes", so someone with a high sodium level will retain water.
  24. A _________ that promotes the excretion of sodium will help pull excess fluid out.
  25. Potassium in found mainly in the _________ fluid and is the major _________ cation.
    intracellular; intracellular
  26. _________ is important in maintaining fluid osmolarity (concentration) and essential for normal membrane _________; a critical factor in transmitting _________ impulses.  It is also needed for _________ synthesis, for the synthesis and breakdown of _________, and to maintain _________ balance.
    • potassium
    • excitability
    • nerve
    • protein
    • glycogen
    • plasma acid-base
  27. Chloride is an _________ that is usually bound with other ions, especially sodium or potassium.
    extracellular anion
  28. The functions of chloride are:
    regulate osmotic pressure between fluid compartments and assist in regulating acid-base balance
  29. _________ is usually combined with phosphorus to form the mineral salts of the bones and teeth.
  30. Of the total body calcium, __% is concentrated in the bones and teeth; __% is in the extracellular fluid.
  31. When the calcium level rises, the phosphorus level usually _________ and vice versa.
  32. Calcium is ingested through the diet and absorbed through the _________.
  33. _________ activity helps to keep calcium in bone tissue.
  34. Calcium promotes transmission of _________ impulses and helps regulate muscle _________ and _________.
    • nerve
    • contraction
    • relaxation
  35. Magnesium is found in _________, intracellular fluid, and _________ fluid.
    • bone
    • extracellular
  36. Magnesium plays a role in:
    It is important in:
    • metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins
    • storage and use of intracellular energy
    • neural transmission
    • Important in:  heart, nerve and muscle function
  37. Nonelectrolytes are measured in _________ and include:
    • mg/dL
    • urea
    • protein
    • glucose
    • creatinine
    • bilirubin
  38. What are the roles of selectively permeable membranes?
    • separate fluid compartments and control movement of water/certain solutes
    • maintain unique composition of each compartment of the body while allowing transport of nutrients and wastes to and from cells.
  39. Simple diffusion is:
    Substances tend to move from an area of _________ concentration to an area of _________ concentration.
    • the random movement of particles in all directions
    • higher
    • lower
    • movement of oxygen from alveoli to pulmonary capillaries
  40. Facilitated diffusion does the same thing as _________ diffusion except it requires a _________ to transport the molecules through membranes toward an area of _________ concentration.
    • simple
    • carrier protein
    • lower
  41. During active transport, _________ transport substances from an area of _________ concentration to an area of _________ or _________ concentration.
    It requires _________.
    • carrier proteins
    • low
    • equal
    • greater
    • energy
  42. What are some examples of solutes that are actively transported across cell membranes?
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • glucose
    • hydrogen
  43. Filtration is the transfer of water and solutes through a membrane from an area of _________ pressure to an area of _________ pressure.  
    It is needed to:
    • high
    • low
    • move fluid out of capillaries into tissues and filter plasma through the kidneys
  44. What is a combination of pressures from the force of gravity on the fluid and the pumping action of the heart called?
    hydrostatic pressure
  45. Osmosis is the movement across a membrane from a _________ concentrated (higher water) to a _________ concentrated (less water) solution.
    • low
    • high
  46. If a fluid compartment has less water and more sodium, water from another compartment moves to the more concentrated compartment by _________ to create a better fluid balance.
  47. What are the main regulators of fluid balance?