anatomy lecture 1

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anatomy lecture 1
2013-05-10 16:25:51

anatomy lecture 1 cards
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  1. the major tissue of glands and it also covers the inside and outside of hollow organs
    Epithelial Tissue
  2. Very dense group. Function is to provide support, protect, bind, fill spaces, store fat and produce blood cells
    Connective Tissue
  3. used to bind skin to the body
    Loose Connective
  4. made of cells specialized for storing drops of oil in their cytoplasm. used for cushion, insulation and energy storage.
    Adipose Tissue
  5. very tough and flexible tissue made of closely packed fibers made of collagen and found in tendons and ligaments
    Dense Fibrous
  6. very rigid and flexible, it can provide the framework for the skeleton
  7. almost no blood vessels, heals slowly and found in joints between bones
    hyaline cartilage
  8. very strong and flexible cartilage with many elastic yellow fibers to allow for more movement, it is found in the ear and larynx, epiglottis and tip of the nose
    elastic cartilage
  9. contains many tough, rigid, white collagen fibers and found in areas that are subject to great pressure; such as the intervertrebral disc
  10. the hardest substance in the body with space around the cells filled with minerals. used for support, protection, and the production of blood cells
  11. contains different types of cells suspended in a fluid matrix called plasma
  12. groups of contractile cells used primarily for movement of the body and within the body
    muscle tissue
  13. contains multiple nuclei, has striations and is a voluntary type of muscle tissue
    skeletal muscle
  14. has only one nucleus per cell, no striations, and is involuntary
    smooth muscle
  15. has only one nucleus per cell, has striations, is involuntary, and also has intercalated discs.
    cardiac muscle
  16. the basic cell is called the neuron and is designed to transmit electrical nerve impulses throughout the body. They are found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that run throughout the body. does not regenerate.
    nervous tissue
  17. made of epithelial tissue with an underlying connective tissue
    epithelial membrane
  18. simple squamous tissue that secretes a watery substance for lubrication
    serous membrane
  19. lines the walls of body cavities
  20. covers organs in body cavities
  21. made of only connective tissue, found in joints and bursal sacs and produce a fluid called synovial fluid used as a lubricant in joints
    connective tissue membranes
  22. membranes that cover the abdominal cavity and organs
  23. the epidermis and structures rising from it including hair, nails, oil and sweat glands
    embryonic ectodermal orgin
  24. the dermis layer is derived from the ______
    embryonic mesoderm
  25. made of stratified squamous epithelial cells, contains no blood vessels
  26. the bottom layer of stem cells that divide by mitosis to produce new epidermal which move upward toward the surface of the skin and contains melanocytes which produce melanin and keratinocytes that produce the protein keratin used to add strength to the epidermis
    stratum germinativum
  27. larger, more mature cells that contain many keratinocytes and melanocytes
    stratum spinosum
  28. dark band of flattened keratinocytes that die becoming keratin fibers
    stratum granulosum
  29. dead cells covered in the trough protein keratin that is translucent and found on the hands and feet
    stratum lucidum
  30. the outer layer of dead flattened cells. keratin is now present acting as a water resistant agent to prevent excess water loss
    stratum corneum
  31. the tough part of the skin made mostly of connective tissue. It does have blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels
  32. thin layer below the epidermis containing loos connective tissue, capillaries and sensory neurons
    papillary layer
  33. layer of dense irregular connective tissue containing interwoven collagen fibers for strength as well as hair follicles, blood vessels, nerves, sweat and sebaceous glands
    reticular layer
  34. it attaches the skin to underlying muscle and bone. it also contains fat cells deep and deep sensory receptors
    subcutaneous layer
  35. responsible for the production of the pigment melanin. production of melanin increases with excess exposure to the sun. serves to protect the nucleus of the cell from UV radiation
  36. fat-soluble proteins that cause yellow and orange coloration mostly in dehydrated corneum
  37. part of the blood that gives our skin a pink color
  38. inside layer of hair or pilli
  39. middle layer of hair or pilli
  40. outside layer of the hair or pilli
  41. a small muscle in the skin attached to the hair follicle causing hairs to stand up when contracted
    arrector pilli
  42. fetal hair
  43. hair that grows continuously
  44. hair that grows to a certain length and then stops
  45. allows us to grip better and also serves as a protection mechanism
  46. half moon shape of the nail
  47. cuticle of the nail
  48. skin under free edge of the nail
  49. found in dermis, but is of ectodermal origin. secretes an oily substance called sebum. most of the sebum empties into a hair follicle where it makes its way to the surface of the skin. it lubricates the surface of the skin and inhibits the growth of bacteria.
    sebaceous gland
  50. sweat glands. located in the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous layer of the skin.
    sudoriferous glands
  51. sweat glands that keep the body cool and found all over the body
  52. sweat glands that produce pheromones at puberty and are found in the arm pits.
  53. secretes cerumen (ear wax) and serves to keep the tympanic membrane from drying out and also acts as an insect repellent.
    ceruminous glands
  54. often associated with bones and is non-vascular and contains chondrycytes
    skeletal cartilage
  55. specialized cells that make up the cartilage in cavities of bone called lacunae
  56. small hollow spaces in the bone matrix where osteocytes can be found. cartilage in cavities of the bone
  57. a membrane that surrounds most cartilage except in joints. it serves to protect the cartilage and it is vascular so it is a source of blood for the cartilage.
  58. type of hyaline cartilage that is found at the ends of bones (epiphysis) where they come into contact with another moving bone
  59. type of hyaline cartilage that is found at the tips of the ribs where it meets the sternum and is responsible for the flexibility in breathing
  60. type of hyaline cartilage that is replaced by bone and is mostly found in infants and the growth plates of young children
  61. type of hyaline cartilage that is found in the trachea, nose, and bronchi
  62. type of fibrocartilage that is found in joints where extra strength is needed such as the sternoclavicular and the knee
  63. type of fibrocartilage that is found in joints where there is only a slight amount of movement such as the intervertebral discs
  64. type of fibrocartilage that is found in joints where there is circular motion such as the hip joint
  65. type of fibrocartilage that is found in bony grooves where tendons pass such as the wrist
  66. 80 bones. made of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum
    axial skeleton
  67. 126 bones. includes the upper extremities, shoulder, lower extremities and pelvic girdle
    appendicular skeleton
  68. strong, fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of a bone everywhere except at joint surfaces
  69. cells that produce the bone
  70. cells that dissolve and breakdown existing bone
  71. hollow space inside the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow
    medullary cavity
  72. shaft. middle part of long bone made of compact bone with hollow tubes down the middle
  73. ends of the bone made of spongy bone that contains red bone marrow
  74. thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
  75. cylindrical-shaped structure in compact bone that is the structural unit of the bone
  76. circular layers of calcified matrix in the osteon
  77. small tubes that radiate out from the haversain canal and carries nutrients to the osteocytes of the osteon
  78. type of bone formation where the bone is formed directly on or within a fibrous membrane. there is no precursor of cartilage. examples of this type are the flat bones of the skull and lower jaw
    intramembranous bone formation
  79. type of bone formation that preceded in embryo by a replica of hyaline cartilage. cartilage bones are long, short , and irregular shaped bones that make up most of the skeleton. the formation of bones from cartilage begins at the center of the diaphysis and later at each epiphysis
    intracartilageenous (endochondral)
  80. break in bone but doesn't go all the way through
  81. a fracture that goes straight across
  82. fracture that has little cracks radiating out from point of impact
  83. a fracture that does not puncture the skin
    closed or simple
  84. a fracture that breaks the skin
  85. a result of an accident
  86. a break in the bone caused by a diseased bone
  87. type of bone that have an epiphysis and diaphysis (femur, humerus)
    long bone
  88. phalanges are an example of what type of bone
    short bones
  89. bones of the skull and jaw
    flat bones
  90. carpal and tarsal bones
    irregular bones
  91. pieces of bone located within a suture
    wormian bone
  92. found inside a tendon such as the patella
    sesamoid bone
  93. the study of joints
  94. completely immovable joints
  95. a cartilaginous joint connected by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage found at the end of long bones until they fuse after puberty. also called a growth plate
  96. slightly movable joints
  97. freely movable joints
  98. free moving joints. each has a joint cavity. they have articular cartilage. the cavity contains a fluid secreted by a membrane used to lubricate and nourish the cartilage.
    synovial joints
  99. fluid filled sacs that are located in areas of the body where muscles or tendons glide over bones. the sac serves to protect the muscles and tendon