Sociology chap. 9 global stratification

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  1. high income nations
    • nations with the highest overall standards of living
    • have a per GDP greater than $12,000
    • 72 countries (ex. USA, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Canada, etc...)
    • lie mostly in the Northern Hemisphere
    • control the global economy
  2. low income nations
    • nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
    • have a per GDP less than $2,500
    • 53 countries (ex. Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, etc...)
    • spread across Central and East Africa and Asia
    • Hunger, disease, and unsafe housing shape the lives of the world's poorest people
  3. colonialism
    the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political control and economic control of other nations
  4. 2 theories of global stratification
    • modernization theory
    • dependency theory
  5. modernization theory
    • a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
    • nations achieve affluence by developing advance technology
    • encourages innovation and change toward higher living standards
  6. modernization theory: the role of rich nations
    • providing technology to control population size
    • increase food production
    • introducing machinery and information technology
    • providing foreign aid
  7. modernization theory: critics claim...
    • rich nations do little to help poor countries and benefit from the status quo
    • b/c rich nations control the global economy, many poor nations struggle to support their people and cannot follow the path to development taken by rich countries centuries ago
  8. dependency theory
    • a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
    • neocolonialism
  9. dependency theory: the role of rich nations
    3 key factors (export-oriented economies, a lack of industrial capacity, and foreign debt) make poor countries dependent on rich nations and prevent their economic development
  10. dependency theory: critics claim...
    wrongly treated wealth as if no one gets richer without someone else getting poorer
  11. absolute poverty
    a lack of resources that is life-threatening
  12. relative poverty
    the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
  13. poverty and women
    • (rich) a lot of the work women do is undervalued, underpaid, or overlooked
    • (poor) women faced even greater disadvantages and work under poor or even dangerous conditions
    • (poor) in many low-income nations, tradition keeps women out of many jobs
    • 70% of the world's 1 billion people living near absolute poverty are women
  14. types of slavery
    • chattel slavery
    • slavery imposed by the state
    • child slavery
    • debt bondage
    • servile forms of marriage
    • human trafficking
  15. chattel slavery
    one person owns another
  16. slavery imposed by the state
    a government imposes forced labor on people for criminal violations or simply because the government needs their labor
  17. child slavery
    when desperately poor families let their children take to the streets to do what they can to survive
  18. debt bondage
    the practice by which an employer pays wages to workers that are less than what the employers charges the workers for company-provided food and housing
  19. servile forms of marriage
    • families marry off women against their will
    • many end up as slaves working for their husband's family; some are forced into prostitution
  20. human trafficking
    the moving of men, women, and children from one place to another for the purchase of performing forced labor
  21. neocolonialism
    a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
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Sociology chap. 9 global stratification
2013-05-14 00:11:40

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