psych chapter 15
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psych chapter 15
view of mental illness in which odd behavior, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body
view of mental illness as due to a physical disorder requiring medical treatment
institution for people with mental illnesses created in the 15th century
approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for those with mental illness
1960's and 1970's governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals.
scholars who argue that psychiatric diagnoses exert powerful negative effects on peoples perceptions and behaviors
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
diagnostic system containing the American Psychiatric Association (APA) criteria for mental disorders
percentage of people within a population who have a specific mental disorder.
co-occurrence of two or more diagnoses within the same person.
model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in kind rather than degree
for example, with major depression, it is either present or absent, with no in between. Categories differ from each other in kind, not degree.
pregnancy is also another example because eithers shes pregnant, or shes not
model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in degree rather than kind
ex. are the many forms of depression
legal defense proposing that people shouldnt be held legally responsible for their actions if they werent of sound mind when committing them
procedure of placing some people with mental illnesses in a psychiatric hospital or other facility based on their potential danger to themselves or others, or their inability to care for themselves.
condition marked by physical symptoms that suggest an underlying medial illness, but that are actually psychological in origin.
an individuals continual preoccupation with the notion that he has a serious physical disease
generalized anxiety disorder
continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas of life functioning
brief, intense episode of extreme fear characterized by sweating, dizziness, light-headedness, racing heartbeat, and feelings of impending death or going crazy
repeated and unexpected panic attack, along with either persistent concerns about future attacks or a change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, or in which help is unavailable i the event of a panic attack.
marked fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation seems likely
posttraumatic stress disorder
marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event
condition marked by repeated and lengthy immersions in obsessions, compulsions, or both
persisten idea, thought, or impulse that is unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress
repetitive behavior or mental act performed to reduce or prevent stress
fear of anxiety-related sensations
major depression episode
state in which a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activities, along with symptoms that include weight loss and sleep difficulties.
cognitive model of depression
theory that depression is caused by negative beliefs an expectations
tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we cant control
experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness and irresponsible behavior
condition marked by a history of at least one manic episode
condition in which personality traits, appearing first in adolescence, are inflexible, stable, expressed in a wide variety of situations, and lead to distress or impairment
borderline personality disorder
condition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse control
condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, self-centeredness, and risk taking
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
condition marked by a lengthy history of irresponsible and/or illegal actions
condition involving disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
condition marked by multiple episodes of depersonalization
inability to recall important personal information--most often related to a stressful experience--that cant be explained by ordinafy forgetfulness
sudden, unexpected travel away from home or the workplace, accompanied by amnesia for significant life events
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the persons behavior
sever disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality
strongly held, fixed belief that has no basis in reality
psychological problem reflecting serious distortions in reality
sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus
motor problem, including extreme resistance to complying with simple suggestions, holding the body in bizarre or rigid postures, or curling up in a fetal position
perspective proposing that mental disorders are a joint product of a genetic vulnerability, called a diathesis, and stressors that trigger this vulnerability
disorder (known as autism) marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination, usually companied by mental retardation
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
childhood condition marked by excessive inattention, impulsivity, and activity