psych chapter 15

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psych chapter 15
2013-05-09 23:55:04
psych final

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  1. Demonic Model
    view of mental illness in which odd behavior, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body
  2. medical model
    view of mental illness as due to a physical disorder requiring medical treatment
  3. asylum
    institution for people with mental illnesses created in the 15th century
  4. Moral Treatment
    approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for those with mental illness
  5. deinstitutionalization
    1960's and 1970's governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals.
  6. labeling theorists
    scholars who argue that psychiatric diagnoses exert powerful negative effects on peoples perceptions and behaviors
  7. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
    diagnostic system containing the American Psychiatric Association (APA) criteria for mental disorders
  8. prevalence
    percentage of people within a population who have a specific mental disorder.
  9. comoebidity
    co-occurrence of two or more diagnoses within the same person.
  10. categoric model
    • model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in kind rather than degree
    • ...
    • for example, with major depression, it is either present or absent, with no in between. Categories differ from each other in kind, not degree.
    • .........
    • pregnancy is also another example because eithers shes pregnant, or shes not
  11. dimensional model
    model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in degree rather than kind

    ex. are the many forms of depression
  12. insanity defense
    legal defense proposing that people shouldnt be held legally responsible for their actions if they werent of sound mind when committing them
  13. involuntary committment
    procedure of placing some people with mental illnesses in a psychiatric hospital or other facility based on their potential danger to themselves or others, or their inability to care for themselves.
  14. somatoform disorder
    condition marked by physical symptoms that suggest an underlying medial illness, but that are actually psychological in origin.
  15. hypochondriasis
    an individuals continual preoccupation with the notion that he has a serious physical disease
  16. generalized anxiety disorder
    continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas of life functioning
  17. panic attack
    brief, intense episode of extreme fear characterized by sweating, dizziness, light-headedness, racing heartbeat, and feelings of impending death or going crazy
  18. panic dosorder
    repeated and unexpected panic attack, along with either persistent concerns about future attacks or a change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them
  19. agoraphobia
    fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, or in which help is unavailable i the event of a panic attack.
  20. social phobia
    marked fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation seems likely
  21. posttraumatic stress disorder
    marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event
  22. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    condition marked by repeated and lengthy immersions in obsessions, compulsions, or both
  23. obsession
    persisten idea, thought, or impulse that is unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress
  24. compulsion
    repetitive behavior or mental act performed to reduce or prevent stress
  25. anxiety sensitivity
    fear of anxiety-related sensations
  26. major depression episode
    state in which a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activities, along with symptoms that include weight loss and sleep difficulties.
  27. cognitive model of depression
    theory that depression is caused by negative beliefs an expectations
  28. learned helplessness
    tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we cant control
  29. manic episode
    experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness  and irresponsible behavior
  30. bipolar disorder
    condition marked by a history of at least one manic episode
  31. personality disorder
    condition in which personality traits, appearing first in adolescence, are inflexible, stable, expressed in a wide variety of situations, and lead to distress or impairment
  32. borderline personality disorder
    condition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse control
  33. psychopathic personality
    condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, self-centeredness, and risk taking
  34. antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
    condition marked by a lengthy history of irresponsible and/or illegal actions
  35. dissociative disorder
    condition involving disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
  36. depersonalization disorder
    condition marked by multiple episodes of depersonalization
  37. dissociative amnesia
    inability to recall important personal information--most often related to a stressful experience--that cant be explained by ordinafy forgetfulness
  38. dissociative fugue
    sudden, unexpected travel away from home or the workplace, accompanied by amnesia for significant life events
  39. dissociative identity disorder (DID)
    condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the persons behavior
  40. schizophrenia
    sever disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality
  41. delusion
    strongly held, fixed belief that has no basis in reality
  42. psychotic symptom
    psychological problem reflecting serious distortions in reality
  43. hallucination
    sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus
  44. catatonic symptom
    motor problem, including extreme resistance to complying with simple suggestions, holding the body in bizarre or rigid postures, or curling up in a fetal position
  45. diathesis-stress model
    perspective proposing that mental disorders are a joint product of a genetic vulnerability, called a diathesis, and stressors that trigger this vulnerability
  46. autistic disorder
    disorder (known as autism) marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination, usually companied by mental retardation
  47. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    childhood condition marked by excessive inattention, impulsivity, and activity