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-traditional nuclear (two-parent) famliy has given way many other variations
-Flexibiltiy is needed to maintain paternal role modeling, mutual respect, and equality of involvement in child-rearing.
-Dual familes have become the norm in modern America
-Illness, discipline and behavior problems can create additional stresses in this type of family structure
- Children need to have a sense of belonging, support and consistency in their lives to achieve optimal development.
TEN POTENTIAL CHALLENGES IN DUAL-CAREER FAMILIES
1. Need for child care arrangements
2.Time to participate in child's activites
3. Time to support and encourage academic acheivements
4. Time to support and encourage peer interaction
5. Time for child-focused family activites
6. Need for close scheduling and travel away from home
7.Lack of energy for home and child care activites
8. Difficulty with unexpected illness or injury mgmt
9. Increased need for child to self-manage
10. Maintaining a healthy nutrtion optionsat mealtimes.
Various Types of Family Structures
Nuclear- Traditional: husband, wife, andchildren (biological or adopted)
Extended- Grandparents parents, and relatives
Single parent- Women or men establishing separate households through individual preferences, divorces, death, or dissertion
Foster parent- parents who care for children who are sent to them via court system because of dysfunctional families, absent families, or individual family problems
Alternative- Communal family
Dual career- Both parents work because of desire or need
Blended- Mother or father, stepparent, and children
Polygamus- More than one spouse at the same time
Homosexual- A single gay person or two persons of the same sex who may have children from a previous relationship, who have adopted children, or have children via artificial insemination
Cohabitation- Heterosexual or homosexual couples who live together with thier children but remain unmarried
Shared experience in siblings less than 4 years apart increases the occurrence of sibling rivalry
-children of divorce often have a higher incidence of behavioral or learning difficulties later in life.
-Having a parent, child, or dependent relative with chronic illness can strain sibling relationships a place a toll on the emotional, pyschological, and economic resources of the family
-Some well children may react with anger at the ill family member, but many develop a greater capacity for empathy
A nurse can explain and discuss terminal illness and its developmental and behavioral consequences by identifying family strengths, coping styles, and strategies.
Individual child care or group day care is a replacement for thedirect care by a parent and is currently used more often than nannies, extended family members, sibling care and private baby sitters.
Understanding Families Through Theories
-A theory is a group of concepts that forms the basis for understanding observations
-An accepted theory is logical, consistent, and intergrates past and current research
-Family systems theory is based on the understanding that family functions are interconnected
-Family dynamics is a natural tendency in families to seek a stable state
-Managed health care favors the treatment of the entire family rather than just the affected individual, because results are much quicker and last longer
The Family Apgar is a tool to assess family function
Adaptation-sharing of resources and helping of family members
Partnership-lines of communication and participation of family members
Growth-how responsibilites are shared among family members
Affection- visible and invisble emotional interactions among family members
Resolve-how time, money, and space are used for solving or preventing problems among family members
Developmental stage- a period in life characterized by the mastery of specific skills or behaviors
-Dealing with psychosocial conflicts using coping strategies and the use of support systems or significant relationships have an important effect on developing personality