Chapter 4: Cell and Tissue Characteristics

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Chapter 4: Cell and Tissue Characteristics
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2013-05-14 21:19:17
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Chapter 4: Cell and Tissue Characteristics
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  1. ________ is composed of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and electrolytes.
    Protoplasm
  2. All _____ cells have a nucleus, whereas, ______ cells do not.
    eukaryotic, prokaryotic
  3. The nucleus ______ contains, which serves as the template for making the ________, which is later used to direct the synthesis of ________ in the cytoplasm.
    DNA, RNA, proteins
  4. Ribosomes serve as the site for _________ synthesis in the cytoplasm.
    protein
  5. _________ endoplasmic reticulum is studied with ribosomes attached to specific binding sites on the membrane.
    Rough
  6. The ______ complex modifies proteins and packages them into secretory granules bound for the membrane.
    Golgi
  7. _______ contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that are used to break down excess and work-out cell parts as well as foreign substances.
    Lysosomes
  8. Peroxisomes contain a special enzyme that degrades _________.
    peroxides
  9. Mitochondria are the site of cellular _______, the product of which is the formation of _________.
    respiration, ATP
  10. Transport along the axon of neuronal cells takes place along the primary cytoskeletal component _________.
    microtubules
  11. Actin and myosin are examples of functional _______ within muscle cells.
    microfilaments
  12. Integral proteins span the entire lipid bilayer, whereas ________ proteins are bound to one side of the membrane of the other.
    peripheral
  13. The four tissues of the body are ________, _________, _________, and __________.
    epithelial, connective, muscle, neuronal
  14. The differences in permeability of ________ is responsible for the generation of membrane potential. Permeability is regulated by ion channels.
    ion
  15. Of the four tissue types, only ___________ and __________ tissue is excitable.
    muscle, neural
  16. tRNA
    transfer RNA
  17. cytokinesis
    division of cells following mitosis
  18. tubulin
    protein subunit of microtubules
  19. Glycocalyx
    carbohydrate and protein layer that participates in cell recognition
  20. G protein
    second messenger that mediates cellular responses
  21. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    site of synthesis of lipid molecules
  22. anaphase
    separation of chromosome pairs
  23. centrioles
    used to direct chromosomes in dividing cells
  24. proteasomes
    organelles that metabolize misfolded proteins
  25. first messenger
    hormone or neurotransmitter
  26. diffusion
    passive movement of solute down the concentration gradient
  27. osmosis
    diffusion of water
  28. active transport
    any type of transport across the cell membrane that requires energy as it moves material against the concentration gradient
  29. passive transport
    any type of transport across the cell membrane that does not require energy
  30. cotransport
    the coupling of the transport of one solute to a second solute
  31. facilitated diffusion
    transport across the cell membrane through a protein channel that does not require ATP
  32. primary active transport
    direct use of ATP in the transport of a solute
  33. secondary active transport
    utilization of the energy derived from the primary active transport of one solute for the cotransport of a second solute
  34. countertransport
    secondary active transport where substances are moved in the opposite direction
  35. symport
    secondary active transport where substances are moved in the same direction
  36. Put the phases of the cell cycle in the correct order, starting with the beginning of interphase.
    G1 phase -> S phase -> G2 phase -> Prophase -> Metaphase -> Anaphase -> Telophase


  37. In this figure, label phospholipid by layer, an individual phospholipid, an integral protein, a peripheral protein, a channel protein, a glycoprotein, and a glycolipid.
  38. The cell cycle is regulated by three protein complexes and their interactions. List each protein type and describe how it influences the progression through the cell cycle.
    The three protein complexes are (a) cyclins, (b)cyclin-dependent kinases, and (c) anaphase promoting complex. The central components of the cell cycle control system are the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), whose activity depends on their association with the regulatory units called cyclins. The anaphase-promoting complex allows for progression through the cell cycle via destruction of previous CDK complexes. Each molecule functions under variable concentrations.
  39. In many diseases, the root cause is ischemia(low blood flow) or hypoxia (decreased delivery of oxygen). Using what you know about aerobic metabolism, explain how alterations in oxygen delivery to the tissues are detrimental.
    In ischemia and hypoxia (an anoxia), the cells do not receive enough oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain cannot pass electrons from complex to complex. Proton pumping slows or is halted, and the proton gradient decreases,resulting in a decreased production, or a complete lack, of ATP. With no ATP, the cell cannot maintain normal functioning (e.g.,membrane potential, transport) and begins to malfunction.
  40. Tissues must maintain their shape and integrity in order to function. Explain from the cellular level to the tissue level what is responsible for maintaining tissue shape and structure.
    Individual cells produce extracellular matrix proteins that form a basement membrane where cells can form anchors. Cells will then form connections between each other via cell unctions (tight, gap, desmosome, hemidesmosome). This interaction between cytoskeletal elements, the basement membrane, and cellular adhesion is the basis for tissue formation.
  41. Signal transduction is a complex and varied process. Describe the process starting at the first messenger and ending in a physiological response. Be sure to include the various possibilities at both the receptor level and the second messenger level.
    First messengers can be neurotransmitters,protein hormones and growth factors,steroids, and/or other chemical messengers.They will bind to receptors either on the cell membrane (hydrophilic first messengers) or in the cytoplasm (hydrophobic first messengers). The activation of a receptor via first messenger results in the activation of a second messenger.Cell surface receptors are transmembrane proteins that will activate an array of second messengers (cAMP, G proteins,and tyrosine kinases) that will have direct effects on membrane potential or a host of other cellular functions. Activation of an intracellular receptor involves the activation of a transcription factor that will directly influence the expression of a gene product. The gene product will then have an effect on cellular function.
  42. Large molecules or particles are ingested or released from cells. Describe the basics of ingestion and release.
    Endocytosis is the process of bringing in large molecules or substances to a cell. Receptor mediated endocytosis is triggered by a specific ligand. The inflammatory system contains cells(macrophages, neutrophils) that will endocytose dead cell material, bacteria, or foreign material.This process is known as phagocytosis.Exocytosis is the release of large quantities of material, such as the exocytosis of a neurotransmitter.
  43. Fourteen-year-old Thomas Kirk is brought to the clinic for a routine physical before starting top lay sports in school. He is 77 in. tall and weighs200 lb. Tom states, “I have tried to lose weight so I can wrestle at a lower weight, and I just don’t understand why I still weigh 200 pounds. My science teacher said it’s because I have white fat and not brown fat.” How would you explain to Tom about the two kinds of adipose tissue in his body?
    In our bodies, fat is stored in tissue called adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is a special form of connective tissue that helps connect different types of tissue in our body to each other. Adipose cells have big empty spaces in them so they can store large quantities of triglycerides and are the largest storage spaces of energy in the body. The subcutaneous fat we store helps shape our body. It also helps insulate our body because fat is a poor conductor of heat.Adipose tissue exists in two forms: unilocular and multilocular. Unilocular (white) adipose tissue is composed of cells in which the fat is contained in a single, large droplet in the cytoplasm. Multilocular (brown) adipose tissueis composed of cells that contain multipledroplets of fat and numerous mitochondria.We have deposits of brown fat when weare born, but they decrease over time. White fat is the kind we have most of, and it is whatwe add to our body when we gain weight.
  44. There are two forms of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) found in a cell. They are the rough and the smooth ER. What does the rough ER do in a cell?
    A. Produces proteins
    B. Exports protein from the cell
    C. Destroys ribosomes
    D. Combines protein with other components of the cytoplasm
    A.

    Rationale: Rough ER is studded with ribosomes attached to specific binding sites on the membrane. Proteins produced by the rough ER are usually destined for incorporation into cell membranes and lysosomal enzymes or for exportation from the cell. The rough ER segregates(rather than combines) these proteins from other components of the cytoplasm and modifies their structure for a specific function.Rough ER does not transport anything through the cell membrane. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes; it does not destroy them.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The Golgi complex, or Golgi bodies, consists of stacks of thin, flattened vesicles or sacs within the cell. These Golgi bodies are found near the nucleus and function in association with the ER. What is one purpose of the Golgi complex?
    A. To produce bile
    B. To receive proteins and other substances from the cell surface by a retrograde transport mechanism
    C. To produce excretory granules
    D. To produce small carbohydrate molecules
    B.

    Rationale: Recently, data suggest that the Golgi apparatus has yet another function: It can receive proteins and other substances from the cell surface by a retrograde transport mechanism. Golgi bodies do not produce bile. They produce secretory, not excretory,granules, and they produce large carbohydrate molecules rather than small ones.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. In Tay-Sachs disease, an autosomal recessive disorder, hexosaminidase A, which is thelysosomal enzyme needed for degrading theGM2 ganglioside found in nerve cell membranes,is deficient. Although GM2 ganglioside accumulates in many tissues, where does it do the most harm?
    A. Nervous system and brain
    B. Nervous system and retinas
    C. Brain and retinas
    D. Retinas and heart
    B.

    Rationale: Although GM2 ganglioside accumulates in many tissues, such as the heart,liver, and spleen, its accumulation in the nervous system and retina of the eye causes the most damage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The mitochondria are literally the “power plants” of the cell because they transform organic compounds into energy that is easily accessible to the cell. What do the mitochondria do?
    A. Make energy
    B. Form proteasomes
    C. Need DNA from other sources to replicate
    D. Extract energy from organic compounds
    D.

    Rationale: They do not make energy, but they extract it from organic compounds. Proteasomes are small organelles composed of protein complexes that are believed to be present in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus.They are not formed by mitochondria.Mitochondria contain their own DNA and ribosomes and are self-replicating.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The cell membrane is also called what?
    A. Receptor membrane
    B. Plasma membrane
    C. Nuclear membrane
    D. Bilayer membrane
    B.

    Rationale: The cell membrane is often called he plasma membrane. The nuclear membrane is another type of membrane within the cell. The cell membrane provides receptors for hormones and other biologically active substances;it is not a receptor membrane. A main structural component of the membrane is its lipid bilayer. It is not a bilayer membrane.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Some messengers, such as thyroid hormone and steroid hormones, do not bind to membrane receptors but move directly across the lipid layer of the cell membrane and are carried to the cell nucleus. What do they do at the cell nucleus?
    A. Influence DNA activity
    B. Decrease transcription of mRNA
    C. Transiently open or close ion channels
    D. Stabilize cell function
    A.

    Rationale: At the membrane of the cell nucleus,both thyroid and steroid hormones cross into the cell nucleus itself, where they influence DNA activity. Ion-channel–linked receptors transiently open or close ion channels.Thyroid and steroid hormones act within the cell nucleus to increase transcription of mRNA to alter cell function.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The Krebs cycle provides a common pathway for the metabolism of nutrients by the body.The Krebs cycle forms two pyruvate molecules. Each pyruvate molecule formed in the cytoplasm from one molecule of glucoseyields another molecule of what?
    A. ATP
    B. FAD
    C. NADH+H+
    D. H2O
    A.

    Rationale: Each of the two pyruvate molecules formed in the cytoplasm from one molecule of glucose yields another molecule of ATP, which is a special carrier for cellular energy.FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) is acoenzyme of protein metabolism that accepts electrons and is reduced. NADH+H+ is anend product of glycolysis. The electron transportchain oxidizes NADH  H and FADH2and donates the electrons to oxygen, which is reduced to water.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. When cells use energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient, the process is called what?
    A. Active transport
    B. Cotransport
    C. Passive transport
    D. Neutral transport
    A.

    Rationale: Active transport is what occurs when cells use energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient. Passive transport is another term for diffusion. There is no such thing as neutral transport. Cotransport is when the sodium ion and the solute are transported in the same direction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Groups of cells that are closely associated in structure and have common or similar functions are called tissues. What are the types of tissue in the human body?
    A. Binding and connecting tissue
    B. Connective and muscle tissue
    C. Exothelial and muscle tissue
    D. Nerve and exothelial tissue
    B.

    Rationale: Four categories of tissue exist: (a)epithelium, (b) connective (supportive), (c)muscle, and (d) nerve. Binding, connecting,and exothelial tissue are not categories of tissue.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Endocrine glands are epithelial structures that have had their connection with the surface obliterated during development. How are these glands described?
    A. Ductile and produce secretions
    B. Ductile and release their glandular products by exocytosis
    C. Ductless and produce secretions
    D. Ductless and release their glandular products by exocytosis
    C.

    Rationale: These glands are ductless and produce secretions (i.e., hormones) that move directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands retain their connection with the surface epithelium from which they originated.This connection takes the form of epithelium-lined tubular ducts through which the secretions pass to reach the surface. Exocytosis occurs when part of the cell membrane ruptures to release particles that are too large to pass through the cell membrane. These cells are ductless, but do not necessarily secrete their contents into the bloodstream.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Each skeletal muscle is a discrete organ made up of hundreds or thousands of muscle fibers.Although muscle fibers predominate, substantial amounts of connective tissue, blood vessels,and nerve fibers are also present. What happens during muscle contraction?
    A. Calcium-calmodulin complexes produce the sliding of the filaments that form cross-bridges with the thin actin filaments.
    B. During contraction, each cross-bridge undergoes its own cycle of movement, forming a bridge attachment and releasing it;the same sequence of movement repeats itself when the cross-bridge reattaches to the same cell.
    C. When activated by GTP, the cross-bridges swivel in a fixed arc, much like the oars of a boat, as they become attached to the actin filament.
    D. The thick myosin and thin actin filaments slide over each other, causing shortening of the muscle fiber.
    D.

    Rationale: Thin and thick filaments are the two types of muscle fibers that are responsible for muscle contraction. The thin filaments are composed primarily of actin, whereas the thick filaments are composed of myosin. During muscle contraction, the thick myosin and thin actin filaments slide over each other,causing shortening of the muscle fiber, although the length of the individual thick and thin filaments remains unchanged. When activated by ATP, the cross-bridges swivel in a fixed arc, much like the oars of a boat, as they become attached to the actin filament. During contraction, each cross-bridge undergoes its own cycle of movement, forming abridge attachment and releasing it, and moving to another site where the same sequence of movement occurs. This pulls the thin and thick filaments past each other. The calcium calmodulin complex is in smooth muscle. It binds to and activates the myosin-containingthick filaments, which interact with actin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. The three main parts of a cell are the nucleus,the ____________, and the cell membrane.
    cytoplasm.

    Rationale: When seen under alight microscope, three major components of the cell become evident: the nucleus, the cytoplasm,and the cell membrane.
  56. Bilirubin is a normal major pigment of bile;its excess accumulation within cells is evidenced clinically by a yellowish discoloration of the skin and sclera, a condition called ___________________.
    jaundice.

    Rationale: When bilirubin collects within the cells, they take on a yellowish color, which is called jaundice.
  57. Cells in multicellular organisms need to communicate with one another to coordinate their function and control their growth. The human body has several means of transmitting information between cells, what arethey? Mark all that apply.
    a. Direct communication between adjacent cells
    b. Express communication between cells
    c. Autocrine and paracrine signaling
    d. Endocrine or synaptic signaling
    a, c, d.

    Rationale: The human body has several means of transmitting information between cells. These mechanisms include direct communication between adjacent cells through gap junctions, autocrine and paracrine signaling, and endocrine or synaptic signaling. There is no such thing as express communication between cells.
  58. The human body has nondividing cells that have left the cell cycle and are not capable of mitotic division once an infant is born. What are the nondividing cells? Mark all that apply.
    a. Mucous cells
    b. Neurons
    c. Skeletal muscle cells
    d. Cardiac muscle cells
    b, c, d.

    Rationale: Nondividing cells, such as neurons and skeletal and cardiac muscle cells,have left the cell cycle and are not capable of mitotic division in postnatal life. The cells that produce mucous are capable of mitotic division. Smooth muscle is often called involuntary muscle because it contracts spontaneously or through activity of the autonomic nervous system.
  59. Smooth muscle is often called ____________ muscle because it contracts spontaneously or through activity of the autonomic nervous system.
    involuntary.

    Rationale: Three types of muscle tissue exist: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.Smooth muscle is often called involuntary muscle because it contracts without the person willing it to contract.

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