anatomy lecture 4

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  1. passage for food, air and the resonating chamber
  2. starts inside the nose and ends at the soft palate and serves as a passageway for air only
  3. begins at the soft palate and ends at the hyoid bone. carries both food and air
  4. begins at the hyoid bone and extends to the esophagus and larynx
  5. resonating chamber containing the vocal cords that allows us to make sound and is supported by elastic cartilage
  6. tube that extends from the larynx to the t-5 location and is positioned anterior to the esophagus. the cartilaginous rings that line it are there to keep it from collapsing and is in a C shape to allow the esophagus to fit in behind it
  7. the divisions of the trachea
  8. 2 large branches from the trachea that go left and right
    primary bronchi
  9. smaller branches with 3 on the right and 2 on the left
    secondary bronchi
  10. smaller branches that contain less cartilage
    tertiary bronchi or segmented
  11. smaller branches that do not have cartilage but do have smooth muscle that can cause dilation or contraction
  12. very small tubes found in the lungs that lead into the respiratory bronchioles
    terminal bronchioles
  13. microscopic tubules that carry air into the alveoli
    respiratory bronchioles
  14. small, grape like clusters at the end of the respiratory bronchioles where the exchange of respiratory gases take place. they are surrounded by capillary beds to allow for this exchange
  15. large, spongy structures that contain the bronchi. divided into lobes with 3 lobes in the right and 2 in the left.
  16. a membrane attached to the wall of the pleural cavity
    parietal pleura
  17. a membrane attached to the surface of the lungs. these membranes secrete a liquid like lubricant to reduce friction between the lungs and surrounding tissue as the lungs fill and empty with air
    visceral pleura
  18. central regulatory of respiration center in the brainstem
    respiratory control centers
  19. under resting conditions these centers produce a normal rate and depth of respirations (12 to 18 per minute)
    medullary centers
  20. as conditions in the body vary, these centers can alter the activity of the medullary centers, thus adjusting breathing rhythm
    pontine centers
  21. influenced by information from sensory receptors located in other body areas
    brainstem centers
  22. voluntary (but limited) control of respiratory activity
    cerebral cortex
  23. respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen and blood acid levels; located in carotid and aortic bodies
  24. respond to the stretch in lungs, thus protecting respiratory organs from over inflation
    pulmonary stretch receptors
  25. thin lining on the inside of the digestive tract that secretes mucous to keep the tract moist
  26. a region in the mucosa containing two layers of smooth muscle. the inner layer is circular while the outer layer is longitudinal. the contraction of these two layers of muscle allow for the movement of the inside of the digestive tract
    muscularis mucosae
  27. a layer of connective tissue beneath the mucosa that contains blood vessels, nerves and lymph ducts
  28. a region that contains two layers of smooth muscles the inner layer is circular while the outer layer is longitudinal. the contraction of these muscles allows for the movement of food passing through the digestive tract that is called peristalsis
    muscularis externa
  29. the outer layer or covering of the digestive tract except for pharynx, esophagus, mouth, rectum.
  30. a hollow tube structure that connects the mouth to the stomach. it passes through the thoracic cavity behind the trachea and then enters the abdominal cavity through the esophageal hiatus
  31. an opening in the diaphragm
    esophageal hiatus
  32. the region of the superior medial portion of the stomach where it attaches to the esophagus
  33. the region lateral to the cardia and is the most superior portion of the stomach
  34. the area below that fundus down the curve of the J shape of the stomach. this is where most of the mixing occurs between the food and the gastric juices
  35. the curve part of the J shape. it is attached to the small intestine
  36. a muscular valve that regulates how much chyme leaves the stomach and enters the intestine
    pyloric sphincter
  37. large folds of the stomach tissue inside the stomach. allows the stomach to stretch when it gets full and then contract and get smaller when it is empty
  38. the primary role is to finish the process of chemical digestion of the food and to then absorb the nutrients into the body
    small intestine
  39. folds within the small intestine that are permanent unlike the ruage of the stomach. their purpose is to increase the surface area within the intestine to increase the ability to absorb nutrients
    plicae circulares
  40. small finger like projections that cover the surface of the plicae circulares to further increase the surface area of the intestinal wall
  41. the first section after the stomach separated by the pyloric sphincter. it is the shortest and widest section of the small intestine and is the location where the chyme and digestive enzymes mix together for the final part of digestion
  42. the second region of the small intestine where final chemical digestion occurs and nutrient absorption occurs
  43. the final section being the longest and continues the function of the absorption of nutrients. ends at the ileocecal valve
  44. controls the flow of material from the small intestine into the cecum and the large intestine
    ileocecal vavle
  45. responsible for some absorption of nutrients but mostly for the reabsorption of water from the indigestible material passing through
    large intestine or the colon
  46. both an endocrine and exocrine gland that secretes a mixture of digestive enzymes called pancreatic juice into the duodenum. also secretes hormones as part of the endocrine system.
  47. breaks down starch
    pancreatic amylase
  48. breaks down proteins
  49. breaks down fats
  50. attaches the liver to the abdominal wall
    falciform ligament
  51. consists of a large left and right lobe and two smaller quadate and caudate lobes. functions include production of bile, storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen, and to detoxify the blood
  52. a small sac on the inferior surface of the liver that stores bile which is used to emulsify fats and help with their absorption
    gall bladder
  53. produced by salivary glands. helps break down starch molecules into smaller fragments
  54. produced by gastric glands. breaks down proteins into smaller chains of amino acids
  55. loose connective tissue in the center of the tooth that contains the blood vessels and nerves
    pulp cavity
  56. calcified connective tissue that covers the surface of the roots of teeth
  57. a ligament that anchors the tooth in the bony socket
    periodontal ligament
  58. the gums
  59. an infection of the tissue around the teeth due to excess plaque and often results in the loss of teeth
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anatomy lecture 4
2013-05-11 03:54:05

anatomy lecture 4
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