Principals of Nutrition Final

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Principals of Nutrition Final
2013-05-10 22:30:39
nutrition vitamins minerals cancer heart disease osteoporosis diabetes obesity

Final Exam
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  1. Define Trace Minerals

    Name Two
    Minerals needed by the body in small amounts. Less than 100 MG a day.

    Iron, Zinc, Fluoride, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium.
  2. Define Major Minerals

    Name Two
    Minerals needed by the body in large amounts. More than 100 MG a day.

    Potassium, Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Sulfur.
  3. Define Plaque
    Deposits made up of cholesterol, fat, scar tissue, calcium and biological debris that are deposited onto the artery walls.

    Cholesterol rich plaque can cause heart attack or stroke.
  4. 1. Define Stroke
    2. What are the types
    3. Symptoms
    • 1. A stroke occurs when blood flow to part of the brain is interrupted.
    • 2. Ischemic, ablood clot blocks the artery or blood vessel to the brain. And Hemorrhagic, A stroke due to a ruptured artery.
    • 3. Weakness in face, arms, legs. Slurred speech, vision, severe headache, balance
  5. "The Silent Killer" High Blood Pressure or Hypertension.
    1. Risk Factors
    50 Million Americans have High BP, 30% don't know it. No early warning signs.

    Factors: Race, Age, History, Booze, Fat, Salt
  6. Define BMI
    • Body Mass Index tells you the mass of a person based on height and weight.
    • Flaws: It does not take muscle or fat into consideration.

    • Overweight: 25+
    • Obese: 30+
  7. Define Obesity
    Risks associated with:
    Improve health by:
    • A BMI of 30>
    • Risks associated: Type 2, High BP, stroke, cancer, CAD
    • Improve by: exercise, portion, eat properly
  8. Define Gastric Bypass
    A weight loss surgery where the stomach is created to restrict food intake. Food bypasses the stomach and small intestine, reducing the kcal and nutrient intake.
  9. Define Spina Bifida
    A birth defect due to an insufficient amount of folate acid. The neural tube closes, causing a spinal cord bulge of spinal fluids.

    Often resulting in paralysis.
  10. Define Carcinogen.
    A cancer causing substance or agent. The cause of whatever cancer you get.
  11. Define Rickets
    A vitamin D deficiency in children in which bones do not grow normally, causing bowed legs.
  12. Define Atherosclerosis
    A condition in which plaque forms a buildup on the arterial walls. This is the most common form of arteriosclerosis.

    • Affects large and medium arteries.
    • Arteries become think with plaque.
  13. Define Phytochemicals.

    Food Sources:
    Bioactive chemicals that are naturally linked together with foods that help decrease the chances of chronic diseases.

    Food Sources: Fruits and Veg
  14. Define Diabetes
    Complications Associated with
    Primary Treatment
    • 1. Low blood sugar. When a person eats, insulin is released, insulin facilitates glucose, which gives energy. Diabetics don't have sufficient insulin, causing glucose issues.
    • 2. Hyperglycemia, high blood sugar, obesity, amputations, poor exercise.
    • 3. Insulin regulation, exercise, diet regulation.
  15. Define Osteoporosis
    Risk Factors
    1. The loss of bone density and strength, associated with debilitating fractures due to loss of bone tissue. 2. Fractures and weakness3. Weight bearing exercise, no smoking/drinking, good diet, vitamin D and calcium.
  16. Risk Factors of CAD
    Controllable and Uncontrollable
    • Controllable:
    • Smoking, high BP, high cholesterol, inactivity, obesity, diabetes

    Uncontrollable: Age, male gender, history
  17. Food factors associated with certain types of cancers.
    • Alcohol - Oral, esophagus, breast, liver
    • Red Meat - colon
    • Inactivity - colon, breast, other
    • Fat - Colon, Breast, Prostate, Other

    Recommended: Phytochemicals.
  18. Name the water soluble vitamins.
    C, B1, B2, B3, Folate, B12

    Water Solluable Vitamins can be toxic to the body.
  19. Name the fat soluble vitamins
    A, E, D, K

    Occur in foods containing fat. They are usually not excreted, they travel around the body just as fat does until they are needed.
  20. What are the functions of fat soluble vitamins?
    Occur in foods containing fat. They are usually not excreted, they travel around the body just as fat does until they are needed.
  21. What are the functions of Vitamin D?
    Bone formation, increases calcium intake, may protect against cancer, promotes healthy, strong bones!
  22. What are the functions of water?
    • 50-70% of body weight
    • Regulates temp
    • Rehydrates you, joints, and skin
    • Component of cells
    • Transports nutrients
    • Digestive role
  23. What are the food sources of vitamin A?
    Pigmented fruits and vegetables. Dark green, orange.

    It is also fortified in milk products.
  24. What are the food sources of vitamin D?
    Tuna, Cod, Liver, Yolks, Bread.

    Fortified in Butter.
  25. What is heme iron?
    The largest form of iron in animal foods. This type of iron is absorbed and used more than plant iron.
  26. What is non-heme iron?
    The form of iron in all plant sources of iroon. This form can also be found in small amounts in animal sources.
  27. What is iron?
    Define iron deficiency anemia.
    Iron is the key component of hemoglobin, it carries the oxygen to cells, the oxygen breaks down glucose to produce energy.

    • Anemia is.. when all of the iron stores are used up due to lack of iron in the diet or due to blood loss. There is a loss of RBCs in blood.
    • Symptoms include: fatigue, irritability, pallor
  28. Dash Eating Plan
    Mineral Increased
    Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension

    • 1. Helps prevent high BP, proven to work, it is high in fruits and vegs and low fat dairy, reduced fat and sodium intake.
    • 2. Mineral is Magnesium and Potassium