Exam 3 review

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Exam 3 review
2013-05-12 13:52:46

review of exam 3
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  1. 1-A person who experiences a drop in plasma calcium levels will respond by:
    B increasing secretion of pth that will stimulate osteoclasts
  2. 2-In a normal healthy skeletal muscle fiber the specific event that end a contraction is
    A active transport of ca back into the sr
  3. 3-The tissue that is responsible for growth and remodeling of bone in the skeleton
    E stem cells in osteogenic layer, fibroblasts of fibrous periosteum, osteoblasts in endosteum
  4. 4-The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to
    B regulate intracellular caqlcium concentration
  5. 5-Mineralized bone contains which of the following matrials that contribute to its structure?
    E-all-collagen, calcium carb, hydroxyapatite
  6. 6-Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of
    C calcium, phosphate and vitamin D
  7. 7-The event that begins a contraction of sarcomeres within a skeletal muscle fiber is
    C calcium binging to troponin
  8. 8-During the later stages of the healing process for a broken bone, a patient is often allowed to use a sling or walking cast that allows some freedom of movement for the affected limb. Why?
    B minor flexing of the bone speeds bone remodeling by stimulating osteoblasts
  9. 9-The action that causes myosin heads to release from binding sites on actin is
    D-Binding a fresh ATP to the myosin heads
  10. 10-A rapidly available form of energy in skeletal muscles that is synthesized during resting periods
    B creatine phosphate
  11. 11-A resting muscle that has not been exercised for several hours shows increasingly strong contractions when stimulated again. This is called
  12. 12-Which of the followimg statement is correct about osteoid?
    c-is composed of glycoproteins and collagen proteins
  13. 13-Structural adaptations of bone tissue that are important in helping bones to resist fractures are
    d- a and b-cylindrical osteons, counter-rotating bands of collagen,
  14. 14-Osteoprogenitor cells are responsible for
    a-dividing to produce osteoblasts
  15. 15-Bone remodeling is stimulated by
    e-all-increased bending or twisting, weak electrical currents, increased secretion of testosterone/estrogen
  16. 16-A young patient is experiencing skeletal growth rates that are significantly behind other children of the same age. Tests show a below normal growth hormone level so likely cause is
    d-a and b, decreased mitosis of osteoblasts and decreased growth of cartilage in epiphyseal plate
  17. 17-After being stimulated a muscle fiber increases tension until it reaches it maximum force but the load suspended from the fiber does not move this is an example of
    c-isometric contraction
  18. 18-metacarpals in the wrist grow by
    d-a and b--elongation of diaphysis and conversion of cartilage to bone at the diaphyseal margin of the epi plates.
  19. 19-Formulation of bony tissues (ossification) occurs at approx. what stage in fetal development?
    c-8 weeks
  20. 20-lactate that is produced during periods of intense muscle activity
    A is converted back into pyruvate in the liver but only when aerobic conditions exist
  21. 21=growth of bones is promoted by which?
    D-a and b thyroid and testosterone/estrogen
  22. 22-the occipital bones of the skull grow
    B by intramembranous development withn flexible dense connective tissue
  23. 23 during healing in a broken bone, binding of the broken edges together a tough but flexible form if scare tissue occurs in what stage of the process?
    C fibrocartilage callus
  24. 24 during formation of muscles in the developing fetus which of the following is true
    D – a and b – groups of myoblasts fuse, skeletal muscles are present by week 8
  25. 25 During remodeling of bone tissue minerals in the matrix must be dissolved and then soft matrix is digested. The is accomplished by
    D osteoclasts
  26. 26 in intramembranous bone growth bone tissue first appears when
    b-mesenchymal cells transform into osteoblasts to form an ossification center
  27. 27-The only step in cellular respiration that can function in the absence of oxygen is
    D glycolysis
  28. 28-the ability you have to lif an object with your arm and hold it at a fixed position is possible because of what muscle property?
    A wave summation
  29. 29 The time interval from the beginning of excitation of a skeletal muscle and the beginning of contraction is
    d-both a and b, latent period, from 1 ot 3 milliseconds
  30. 30-When pyruvate is fully decomposed in cellular respiration
    e-all of energy is transferred to nadh and fadh2, process occurs in krebs cycle, co2 is produced
  31. 31 flexion of the myosin heads, the power stroke, duringn contraction occurs when what event occurs?
    D ATP is split forming adp and pi
  32. 32 a person ingests a chemical that binds irreversibly to the ach receptors on the motor end plate but does not stimulate the sarcolemma. The consequence of this would be
    A contraction only from external electrical stimulation
  33. 33 which is the proper sequence of events leading up to the contraction of a muscle cell
    B actionpotential to axon, ca enters the axon terminal, ach is released into synapse, action potential is generated on the sarcolemma, ap travels down t tubule, ca is released from SR
  34. 34 which of the following is true or neuromusculat junctions
    E all of above all junctions are simultaneous, only one junction for each fiber, an axon may have many junctions.
  35. 35 which of the following is not correct concerning skeletal muscle fibers?
    d-fibers are joined by gap junctions
  36. 36-postural musles like the erector spinae must maintain a nearly constant state of contraction for long periods of time without fatiguing. Which of the following are ture about the composition of these and other long endurance muscles?
    d-a and b-slow oxidative, high concentration of oxygen storing myoglobin
  37. 37-which of the following will not affect the strength a skeletal muscle contraction?
    B increase in myoglobin concentration
  38. 38 when exercising aerobically below anaerobic threshold, the energy source that sustains contractions after 5 minutes is
    B creatine phosphate?
  39. 39 the protein that allows myosin to bind to actin in a skeletal muscle fiber to begin contraction is
    C tropomyosin
  40. 40 the I band of a mofibril contains which of the following
    D actin contain thin filaments and z dixc proteins