Intro to Sociology Final
Card Set Information
Intro to Sociology Final
A kinship system that favors the father’s relatives
A kinship in which both sides of a person’s
family are regarded as equally important.
A kinship system that favors the mother’s relatives
A society in which men dominate in family decision making
A society in which women dominate in family decision making
Power that has been institutionalized and is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised.
An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.
Max Weber’s term for power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers
As an ideal type, an economic system in which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce
An increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field
The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity, such as factories and plants.
Reductions taken in a company’s workforce as part of deindustrialization
The social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed and consumed.
A formal process of learning in which some people consciously teach while others adopt the social role of learner
A view of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests
An authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals.
A family in which relatives-such as grandparents, aunts or uncles- live in the same home as parents and their children
A set of people related by blood, marriage or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society.
Rigid adherence to fundamental religious doctrines, often accompanied by a literal application of scripture or historical beliefs to today’s world.
The actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s will on others.
Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.
The exercise of power through a process of persuasion
The state of being related to others
A form of capitalism in which businesses compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy
Lending small sums of money to the poor so they can work their way out of poverty.
Control of a market by a single business firm.
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other.
A married couple and their unmarried children living together.
A form of polygamy in which a woman may have several husbands at the same time.
A form of marriage in which an individual may have several husbands or wives simultaneously.
A form of polygamy in which a husband may have several wives at the same time.
Max Weber’s term for the disciplined work ethic, this worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers.
A view of society in which many competing groups within the community have access to government officials, so that no single group is dominant
In Harold D. Lasswell’s words, “who gets what, when and how.”
The ability to exercise one’s will over others.
A term used by C. Wright Mills for a small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States.
Max Weber’s terms for power made legitimate by law.
According to Emile Durkheim, a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.
A statement to which members of a particular religion adhere
The feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion.
A practice required or expected of members of a faith.
A form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her life, but only one spouse at a time.
An organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
An economic system in which the means of productions and distribution are collectively rather than privately owned.
The impact that a teacher’s expectations about a student’s performance may on the student’s actual achievements.
the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria
Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice.
William F. Ogburn’s terms for the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
Talcott Parson’s functionalist view of society as tending toward a state of stability or balance.
A theory of social change that holds that society is moving in a definite direction.
A term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect its objective position
Rebellious craft workers in 19th century England who destroyed new factory machinery as part of their resistance to the Industrial Revolution
Organized collective activities that values and social identities as well as improvements in the quality of life
New Social Movements
The transfer of work to foreign contractors.
The conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities
The ways in which a social movement utilizes such resource as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel
Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture
Organized collective activities to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society.
Cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
Thorstein Veblen’s term for those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change and who have a stake in maintaining the status quo
The number of live birth per 1,000 population in a given year. Also known as the crude birthrate
The immigration to the United States and other industrialized nations of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed in their home countries
An enumeration, or counting, of a population
A spatial or political unit of social organization that gives people a sense of belonging.
A theory of urban growth devised by Ernest Burgess that sees growth in terms of a series of rings radiating from the central business district.
The number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year. Also known as the crude death rate.
The scientific study of population.
A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities and the lower classes are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards
The level of reproduction in a society.
The significant rise in the earth’s surface temperatures that occurs when industrial gases like carbon dioxide turn the planet’s atmosphere into a virtual greenhouse
The difference between births and deaths, plus the difference between immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population
As defined by the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
: An area of study that is concerned with interrelationships between people and their spatial setting and physical environment
The number of new cases of a specific disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period, usually a year.
A city characterized by relatively large size, open competition, an open class system, elaborate specialization in the manufacturing of goods.
The number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
Infant Mortality Rate
The median number of years a person can be expected to live under current mortality conditions.
The incidence of disease in a given population
The incidence of death in a given population
A theory of urban growth developed by Chauncey D. Harris and Edward Ullman that views growth as emerging from many centers of development, each of which reflects a particular urban need or activity
An approach to urbanization that considers the interplay of local, national, and worldwide forces and their effect on local space, with special emphasis on the impact of global economic activity
New Urban Sociology
A city in which global finance and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy.
the total number of cases of a specific disorder that exist at a given time
Societal expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill.
The study of the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population.
The average number of children born alive to any women, assuming that she conforms to current fertility rates.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
An area of study that focuses on the interrelationships between urban residents and their environment.
A term used by Louis Wirth to describe distinctive patterns of social behavior evident among city residents
Records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces that are gathered through a registration system maintained by governmental units
Immanuel Wallerstein’s view of the global economic system as divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited.