Immunohematology

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Author:
ncrook
ID:
219002
Filename:
Immunohematology
Updated:
2013-05-11 01:34:31
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Rhesus system
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Rhesus system
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  1. What are the 2 genes that control the Rh blood group system?
    • RHD: D
    • RHCE: C, c, E, e
  2. What does the RHD gene control expression of?
    D
  3. What does the RHCE gene control the expression of?
    • C
    • c
    • E
    • e
  4. What are the Rh antigens made of?
    Proteins
  5. Out of all the Rh antigens, which one is the most immunogenic?
    D antigen
  6. What causes someone to have a weak D?
    Weaker expression of the cDe haplotype may fail to react by direct agglutination testing but will react strongly with the IAT (indirect antiglobulin test)
  7. What are the AABB standard for Rh-negative donor units?
    • Must be tested for weak D
    • Those that test positive must be identified as Rh positive
  8. What are the AABB standards for weak-D recipients?
    Transfuse with D negative units
  9. If c and e are present on the same haplotype, what antigen is also expressed?
    f
  10. A D positive individual who makes Anti-C usually inherits what 2 antigens?
    • C
    • e
  11. What is Cw considered?
    A low frequency antigen
  12. Who is V or ces more prevalent in?
    30% prevalence in African-Americans
  13. What antigen appears to be anti-D and anti-C in a test tube?
    G
  14. What What is the antibody to the high frequency Rh antigen made by Rhnull people?
    Rh:29
  15. What is the phenotype when no reaction occurs when tested with anti-E, anti-e, anti-C, and anti-c and how is it written?
    • D deletion
    • Written as D--
  16. What phenotype:
    Appears to have no Rh antigens
    Membranes of their RBCs are abnormal and have a shortened life span
    Rhnull phenotype
  17. What antibodies:
    Produced in humans through pregnancy or transfusions
    IgG antibody - does not generally activate complement
    Optimal reaction temp is 37 degrees celcius
    Optimal reaction phase is AHG
    Agglutination enhancement with LISS, PEG, and enzymes
    • Rh antibodies
    • D, C, c, E, e
  18. What Rh antigens are usually found together?
    • C and e
    • E and c
  19. What types of transfusion reactions can the Rh antigens cause?
    • Hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs)
    • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
  20. What can be given to mothers to prevent the formation of Anti-D and how long can they wait to be given it?
    • Rh immune globulin (RhIG) (RhoGAM)
    • Administered withing 72 hours after delivery
  21. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    D
    • R
    • (Capital R)
  22. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    d (Rh negative)
    r
  23. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    Ce
    • Superscript 1 for Rh positive: R1
    • Prime for Rh negative: r'
  24. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    cE
    • Superscript 2 for Rh positive: R2
    • Double prime for Rh negative: r"
  25. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    ce
    • Superscript 0 for Rh positive: R0
    • Nothing after the r for Rh negative: r
  26. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    CE
    • Superscript z for Rh positive: Rz
    • Superscript y for Rh negative: ry 
  27. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    CDe
    R1
  28. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    cDE
    R2
  29. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    CDE
    RZ
  30. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    cDe
    R0
  31. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    Cde
    r'
  32. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    cdE
    r"
  33. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    CdE
    ry
  34. How is the Landsteiner-Weiner system label:
    cde
    r

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