History slide 2

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History slide 2
2013-05-11 07:57:22

Slide 2
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  1. Explain the Neolithic revolution?
    • - 10 000-4000 B.C - Post Ice-Age --> Permanent settlements by Palaeolithic hunters and collectors. 
    • - More fertile conditions for crops in the East mediterranean.
    • -The fertile Crescent (Syria- Iraq)
    • IMPORTANT!; East-West orientation = similar conditions: Hoof animals, plants+ migration. Better than north- south.
    • -Permanent settlements-->Planning for the future
    • -Cultivation-New crops - surplus of produce-Wild wheat, barley & peas--> better nutrients & growth of population!
    • - Domestication of cheep, goats, pigs- a gradual shift towards animal husbandry.
    • -Enabled for productivity gains-->storage-->Stability in food access
    • -Technological development/ Spread of techniques/implements--> new tools etc.

    • -Improved maintenance-->Population increase-->Necessitates further organization of maintenance & society in general= new rules (institutions)
    • -Property relations:Collective/common
  2. Explain the Bronze age cultures (sumerian) 3000-1500 B.C?
    • -Irrigation-->Controlling floods, storage of waters, Irrigation:Open access
    • -Technological progress: Wooden plough, the wheel, metals (copper and bronze)
    • -Writing & Mathematics: records of supply- simple book-keeping
    • -Middle-east un the centre for economic activities
    • -Specialization in trade- Systematic use of measurements and weights: standardization leads to lower transaction costs.

    Rice: Cultivated along the Yangtze river 7000 B.C. China, way ahead of peripheral Europe-Up to 1800s
  3. Explain the preconditions for early Empires?
    • Economy
    • -Grain cultivation=surplus Production= reserves
    • -Specialization: work
    • -Trade and urbanisation
    • -Domestication of cattle-->New needs and possiblities
    • -Development of political thought & organization. Tribal societies-->City states--> Empires.
    • Technology:
    • -More and better tools
    • -Different environments= Different preconditions--->
    • -Technological refinement spread--> access to new resources-->Increased specialization 
    • -Increased trade and urbanization
  4. Explain what the Hellenistic era is and the ancient economic integration?
    • -It's the period of ancient Greek history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C and the emergence of Ancient rome 200 B.C.
    • -Common use of coins= Facilitating exchanges/trade
    • -A transition period-Spread of Greek culture; Ideas, Science, language and customs
    • -Sea Trade= Cost efficient infrastructure and institutional& technological diffusion
    • -Relatively high economic growth, transfer of technology through trade.
    • -Increased agricultural productivity--> city growth!
  5. Explain the roman economy?
    • -200 B.C-150 A.D Expansion leading to integration: East-West-North (multi lingual and cultural)
    • -Military based economy- facing constant wars and conflicts
    • -Returns from conquered territories feeding Rome
    • -Looting for land and slaves & emptying the spanish sliver mines
    • -Introduction of taxes for public expenditures
    • -Large landowners & extreme social inequalities.
  6. Explain the characteristics of the Roman economy?
    • - Continuation of the Hellenistic Era: Inherited institutions (laws/rules) cultural imprints
    • -Trade run by lower classes: Low status for merchants
    • -Substantial commercial freedom-Enforcement of contracts and property rights
    • -Provincial administration-Political rule
    • -Profound infrastructure investments: roads, water supplies and city planning
    • -Relatively high standards of living- "the free"
    • -Economic base. Trade and agriculture
    • -Expansion of monetary exchanges-lower transaction costs by uniform coins etc.
  7. Explain Pax romana 133 B.C-180 A.D and
    Rome 100-250 A.D?
    • Pax Romana:
    • -relative peace and prosperity: Rome dominated Europe, parts od the Mid-east and N-Africa.
    • -Increased slavery-Most fought wars at boarders
    • -Population growth- expanding agriculture and trade.
    • -Embryonic banks and credits

    • Rome 100-250 A.D:
    • -Further colonisation and expansion
    • -Professional bureaucracy development: modern institutions-economic transactions secured by laws.
    • -Cities supported by the hinterlands-Regional specialization.
    • -Expanding army costs
    • Increasing tax burdens for peasants.
  8. Explain the stepwise decline of the roman empire?
    • -Luxury consuming aristocracy exempted from taxes
    • -Costly armies & territorial expansion: too many wars
    • -Autonomous minor Germanic kingdoms & Germanization of the military forces
    • -Decreasing tax returns, corruption, greed, shrinking trade and inflation
    • -Agrarian crisis, less peasants taxe returns, estates in crisis, slave based
    • -Environmental crisis: Lack of fuel/wood & erosion (trash everywhere)
    • -Population decrese
    • -Decline of slavery: Access, costs, subsistence
    • -technological creativity diminished
    • -BREAKDOWN 476 A.D
  9. Explain what happened in East and West Rome around 500 A.D?
    • -Spread of Greek culture and Orthodox Christianity; a challenge to the existing order in the Roman Empire. The byzantine empire expands from Constantinople, which replaces Rome as capitol.
    • -Constantinople dominated East mediterranean and Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine from around 500
    • -Strong state imprints: Coins, land taxation, military services
    • -Trade and further agricultural specialization
    • -Rome; A parenthesis in the long-term development. Too large-constantly challenged by surrounding Mediterranean Empires
    • -East Rome and its Byzantine Empire was extremely rich-but vulnerable for the same reasons 
    • -The Byzantine Empire was facing challenges such as migration and the rise of the Turks/ottomans --> territorial losses
    • -1453 The fall of constantinople 
    • -1523 The ottomans reach Vienna