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Explain the Neolithic revolution?
- - 10 000-4000 B.C - Post Ice-Age --> Permanent settlements by Palaeolithic hunters and collectors.
- - More fertile conditions for crops in the East mediterranean.
- -The fertile Crescent (Syria- Iraq)
- IMPORTANT!; East-West orientation = similar conditions: Hoof animals, plants+ migration. Better than north- south.
- -Permanent settlements-->Planning for the future
- -Cultivation-New crops - surplus of produce-Wild wheat, barley & peas--> better nutrients & growth of population!
- - Domestication of cheep, goats, pigs- a gradual shift towards animal husbandry.
- -Enabled for productivity gains-->storage-->Stability in food access
- -Technological development/ Spread of techniques/implements--> new tools etc.
- -Improved maintenance-->Population increase-->Necessitates further organization of maintenance & society in general= new rules (institutions)
- -Property relations:Collective/common
Explain the Bronze age cultures (sumerian) 3000-1500 B.C?
- -Irrigation-->Controlling floods, storage of waters, Irrigation:Open access
- -Technological progress: Wooden plough, the wheel, metals (copper and bronze)
- -Writing & Mathematics: records of supply- simple book-keeping
- -Middle-east un the centre for economic activities
- -Specialization in trade- Systematic use of measurements and weights: standardization leads to lower transaction costs.
: Cultivated along the Yangtze river 7000 B.C. China, way ahead of peripheral Europe-Up to 1800s
Explain the preconditions for early Empires?
- -Grain cultivation=surplus Production= reserves
- -Specialization: work
- -Trade and urbanisation
- -Domestication of cattle-->New needs and possiblities
- -Development of political thought & organization. Tribal societies-->City states--> Empires.
- -More and better tools
- -Different environments= Different preconditions--->
- -Technological refinement spread--> access to new resources-->Increased specialization
- -Increased trade and urbanization
Explain what the Hellenistic era is and the ancient economic integration?
- -It's the period of ancient Greek history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C and the emergence of Ancient rome 200 B.C.
- -Common use of coins= Facilitating exchanges/trade
- -A transition period-Spread of Greek culture; Ideas, Science, language and customs
- -Sea Trade= Cost efficient infrastructure and institutional& technological diffusion
- -Relatively high economic growth, transfer of technology through trade.
- -Increased agricultural productivity--> city growth!
Explain the roman economy?
- -200 B.C-150 A.D Expansion leading to integration: East-West-North (multi lingual and cultural)
- -Military based economy- facing constant wars and conflicts
- -Returns from conquered territories feeding Rome
- -Looting for land and slaves & emptying the spanish sliver mines
- -Introduction of taxes for public expenditures
- -Large landowners & extreme social inequalities.
Explain the characteristics of the Roman economy?
- - Continuation of the Hellenistic Era: Inherited institutions (laws/rules) cultural imprints
- -Trade run by lower classes: Low status for merchants
- -Substantial commercial freedom-Enforcement of contracts and property rights
- -Provincial administration-Political rule
- -Profound infrastructure investments: roads, water supplies and city planning
- -Relatively high standards of living- "the free"
- -Economic base. Trade and agriculture
- -Expansion of monetary exchanges-lower transaction costs by uniform coins etc.
Explain Pax romana 133 B.C-180 A.D and
Rome 100-250 A.D?
- Pax Romana:
- -relative peace and prosperity: Rome dominated Europe, parts od the Mid-east and N-Africa.
- -Increased slavery-Most fought wars at boarders
- -Population growth- expanding agriculture and trade.
- -Embryonic banks and credits
- Rome 100-250 A.D:
- -Further colonisation and expansion
- -Professional bureaucracy development: modern institutions-economic transactions secured by laws.
- -Cities supported by the hinterlands-Regional specialization.
- -Expanding army costs
- Increasing tax burdens for peasants.
Explain the stepwise decline of the roman empire?
- -Luxury consuming aristocracy exempted from taxes
- -Costly armies & territorial expansion: too many wars
- -Autonomous minor Germanic kingdoms & Germanization of the military forces
- -Decreasing tax returns, corruption, greed, shrinking trade and inflation
- -Agrarian crisis, less peasants taxe returns, estates in crisis, slave based
- -Environmental crisis: Lack of fuel/wood & erosion (trash everywhere)
- -Population decrese
- -Decline of slavery: Access, costs, subsistence
- -technological creativity diminished
- -BREAKDOWN 476 A.D
Explain what happened in East and West Rome around 500 A.D?
- -Spread of Greek culture and Orthodox Christianity; a challenge to the existing order in the Roman Empire. The byzantine empire expands from Constantinople, which replaces Rome as capitol.
- -Constantinople dominated East mediterranean and Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine from around 500
- -Strong state imprints: Coins, land taxation, military services
- -Trade and further agricultural specialization
- -Rome; A parenthesis in the long-term development. Too large-constantly challenged by surrounding Mediterranean Empires
- -East Rome and its Byzantine Empire was extremely rich-but vulnerable for the same reasons
- -The Byzantine Empire was facing challenges such as migration and the rise of the Turks/ottomans --> territorial losses
- -1453 The fall of constantinople
- -1523 The ottomans reach Vienna