History slide 3

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  1. Describe the different trade relations?
    • -Agrarian based economies-few cities
    • -Invaders threatening the Frankish lands:France, Germany & Belgium
    • -North-African Muslims in Spain 711-Access to the Mediterranean trade aggravated
    • -Scandinavian Vikings in Britain
    • -Magyars in Central Europe in the 800s
    • -The German defeated the Magyars 955
    • -German settlements in E-C-E spread 1000s
    • -Religious conversions-crusaders 1100s-
  2. Describe the basic characteristics of Feudalism?
    • -Manorial systems, common in the Frankish lands 900s onward
    • -Fiefs: heritable lands/property
    • -The right to exploit were granted by a county based lord in return for a vassal knight's loyalty, military service, or security.
    • -Service and protection contracts, involving transfer of land to local royal officers and great land holders gave increased power
    • -The king gave private justice and immunity from royal interference
    • -In the bottom of the social ladder was serfom/ land rents paid in labour

    Feudal relations:

    • THE KING (warrior)
    •      ↑↓
    • Vassal Princes (Barons/Lords)
    •      ↑↓
    • Vassal/landlords: Collecting revenues and serving at wars.
    •     ↑↓
    • The peasant serf (agricultural labour)
  3. Explain the spread of the feudal system?
    • -The hierarchic system of the church: symbolic ceremonies-Obedience
    • -Land owned by monasteries, dignitaries or by the churches themselves= Feudal connections: Church -state-Obedience
    • -From present day France-->Spain--> Italy--> Germany & England into E-C-E/Russia
    • -Fragmented sovereignty-constant wars between small kingdoms/city states
    • -Present all over Europe up to the 1400s
  4. Describe Feudalism in economic thinking?
    • Karl Marx: 
    • -Feudalism: Exploitation of peasants work
    • -But a necessary part of the historical development: Slavery-->Feudalism-->Capitalism-->Socialsim-->Communism

    • North & Thomas
    • -Feudalism was a specific form of contract relations
    • -Work was exchanged for protective and jurisdiction.
    • -High land-labour ratio (much land available in relation to the size of labour)-->extensive farming.
    • -Insecure borders (lack of security)
    • -Changing land rents because of changing property values (population decrease) after the Plauge 1350s
    • -Labour dues in kind (obligations-non-monetary exchanges)
  5. Why feudalism?
    • Why not slavery?
    • -Monitoring is costly
    • -Land was cheap: Labour was available and labour service for the landlord (payment) was measured in days
    • Why not rent?
    • -Transaction costs in a non-monetary economy (easier to trade labour in an economy with low monetary exchanges)
    • -Risk sharing (many people carried the costs of a bad harvests) The manor lord always received his share.
    • Why not a commune?
    • -Gains from specialization in viloence
    • -High costs for military investment (the hierarchic system supplies horses, arms, fortifications)
    • -Peasant serfs exploited: Manorialism= labour dues-fixed or adjusted-low market integration
  6. What happend during 900s-1300s?
    • -Population growth (900s-1300s)
    • -Decreasing land-labour-ratio (less land/head=land hunger)
    • -Malthusian trap: Stagnating productivity, less good nutrition
    • -Increasing populations= Declining wages/costs for labour: Higher access to labour and increasing land rents
    • -Exposure to threats: wars & deceases (the plauge 1350s-1400)
  7. Explain what happened during the 14th century?
    • Began with overpopulation and trade expansion
    • - Famine and the plauge 1350s
    • →Population decline→Increased land labour ration→falling rents/husbandry increases=more/better food nutrients→Rising wages→General recovery→population growth 1450s on.
    • -Growth of certain cities, shipping, banking and financial services
    • -Signs of labour gaining rights, reduced feudal dues---Gradual decline of serfdom
  8. What happend during the 15th & 16th century Europe?
    • -Population growth=Problems to feed all people when the land-labour-ratio decresed
    • -60-95% peasants:Manual labour
    • -Malthusian trap
    • -Falling wages →Rising rents→Landowners strengthened their positions
    • -Migration→Increasing trade and specialization
    • -Incentives for enclosure: UK wool prices went up.
  9. Describe the forces against feudalism?
    • -Expansion of towns, trade and monetary relations
    • -Concentration of power
    • -Centralization of political and military authority 1400s to 1600s= Powerful monarchs→taxation and bureaucracy = declining role for the church
    • -Improved communications: Fewer isolated manors means more contacts and exchanges
    • -Shifting land-labour ratios:Population vs. available land resources
    • -Property rights-enclosure:Law making
    • -Gradual breakdown- France 1789, Germany 1848, Russia 1917, Eastern Europe late 19th century- 1920s
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History slide 3
2013-05-11 13:51:22

slide 3, Medieval economy: Feudalism and agriculture
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