CONCEPTS CHAP 5

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sandovalfj
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219064
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CONCEPTS CHAP 5
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2013-05-12 14:48:52
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CONCEPTS
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CONCEPTS CHAP 5
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  1. VIRUSES HAVE TO THE CAPABILITY TO INFECT...
    EVERY CELLULAR ORGANISM
  2. WHAT DOES " FILTERABLE VIRUSES" MEAN
    • VIRUSES THAT ARE CAPABLE OF PASSING THROUGH FILTERS MEANT TO TRAP BACTERIA
    • A CELL FREE FLUID COULD CONTAIN AGENTS THAT COULD CAUSE INFECTION
  3. WHAT IS THE ROLE THAT VIRUSES HAVE PLAYED IN THE EVOLUTION OF ALL ORGANISMS
    • INFECT CELLS AND INFLUENCE THEIR GENETIC MAKEUP
    • SHAPE THE WAY CELLS, TISSUES, BACTERIA, PLANTS AND ANIMALS HAVE EVOLVED
    • 10% OF HUMAN GENOME CONSISTS OF VIRAL SEQUENCES
    • 10-20% OF BACTERIAL DNA CONSISTS OF VIRAL SEQUENCES
  4. WHY ARE VIRUSES OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES
    VIRUSES CAN'T MULTIPLY UNLESS THEY INVADE A SPECIFIC HOST CELL & INSTRUCT ITS GENETIC & METABOLIC MACHINERY TO MAKE AND RELEASE NEW VIRUSES
  5. WHAT CHARACTERISTICS ARE USED TO NAME VIRUSES
    • HOST AND DISEASE THEY CAUSE
    • STRUCTURE
    • CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
    • SIMILARITIES IN GENETIC MAKEUP
    • TAXONOMY
    •   3 ORDERS
    •   73 FAMILIES
    •   283 GENERA
  6. HOW BIG ARE VIRUSES COMPARED TO OTHER ORGANISMS
    • SMALLEST INFECTIOUS AGENT 20-800NM
    • NO RESEMBLANCE TO CELLS LACK PROTEIN SYNTHESIZING MACHINERY FOUND IN CELLS
    • ONLY HAVE PARTS NEEDED TO INVADE HOST
    • - EXTERNAL COATING
    • - SOMETIMES 1 OR 2 ENZYMES
    • - CORE CONTAINING 1 OR MORE NUCLEIC ACIDS (RNA OR DNA)
  7. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF VIRAL CAPSIDS
    • PROTEIN SHELL THAT SURROUNDS THE NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEOCAPSID - CAPSID AND NUCLEIC ACID TOGETHER
  8. THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CAPSIDS
    • HELLICAL
    • ICOSAHEDRAL
    • COMPLEX
    • COMPOSED OF IDENTICAL PROTEIN SUBUNITS CALLED CAPSOMERES
  9. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN ENVELOPED VIRUS & NAKED VIRUS
    • ENVELOPED VIRUS - TAKE A BIT OF THE CELL MEMBRANE WHEN THEY ARE RELEASED FROM A HOST CELL
    • CAN BUD FROM - CELL MEMBRANE, NUCLEAR ENVELOPE, ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
    • THESE ARE PPLEOMORPHIC
    • NAKED ENVELOPE - VIRUSES THAT CONSIST OF ONLY NUCLEOCAPSID.
  10. UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF VIRAL SURFACE PROTEINS OR SPIKES
    • SURFACE PROTEINS/ SPIKES
    • CAN BE FOUND ON NAKED OR ENVELOPED VIRUSES
    • PROJECT FROM NUCLEOCAPSID OR THE ENVELOPE
    • ALLOWS VIRUSES TO DOCK WITH HOST CELLS
  11. DESCRIBE THE 3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF OF CAPSIDS
    • HELICAL CAPSID - ROD SHAPED CAPSOMER THAT BOND TOGETHER
    • ICOSAHEDRON - THREE DIMENSIONAL, 20 SIDED FIGURE
    • COMPLEX - NON SYMMETRICAL SHAPES, MULTIPLE TYPES OF PROTEINS
  12. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OR VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID
    • VIRUSES CONTAIN EITHER DNA OR RNA (NEVER BOTH)
    • VIRUSES - COMPACT NECESSARY INSTRUCTIONAL REPLICATION GENES (SMALL COMPARED TO GENES OF HOSTS CELL)
    • CONTAIN ONLY GENES NEEDED TO INVADE HOST
    • DNA VIRUSES ARE EITHER SINGLE STRANDED (SS) OR DOUBLE STRANDED (DS) LINEAR OR CIRCULAR
    • + SENSE RNA: SS RNA GENOME READY FOR IMMEDIATE TRANSLATION
    • SEGMENTED RNA - INDIVIDUAL GENES EXIST ON SEPARATE PLACES
    • - SENSE RNA: SS RNA HAVE TO BE CONVERTED INTO PROPER FORM TO MADE INTO PROTEIN
    • RETROVIRUS - CARRY THEIR OWN ENZYMES TO CREATE RNA OR DNA
  13. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT RELEASE STRATEGIES FOR NAKED VS ENVELOPED VIRUSES
    • ENVELOPED ARE LIBERATED BY BUDDING FROM THE MEMBRANE OF THE CYTOPLASM, NUCLEUS & E.R. OR VESICLE
    • DURING THE PROCESS THE NUCLEOCAPSID BINDS TO THE MEMBRANE, WHICH CURVES COMPLETELY AROUND IT AND FORMS A SMALL POUCH
    • NAKED - REACH MATURATION IN THE CELLS NUCLEUS OR CYTOPLASM AND ARE RELEASED WHEN CELL LYSES (RUPTURES)
  14. WHAT IS THE REPLICATION STRATEGY FOR RNA VIRUSES VS. DNA VIRUSES
    • RNA - REPLICATED AND ASSEMBLED IN CYTOPLASM
    • DNA - ENTER THE HOST CELLS NUCLEUS AND ARE REPLICATED AND ASSEMBLED THERE
  15. RETROVIRUSES TURN THEIR RNA GENOMES INTO DNA
    STEP IS ACCOMPLISHED BY A VIRAL ENZYME CALLED REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE  AND HAS IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS IN INFECTIONS WITH THESE VIRUSES
  16. GENERAL PHASES OF ANIMAL VIRUS
    • ADSORPTION - VIRUS CAN INVADE HOST ONLY THROUGH MAKING AN EXACT FIT WITH SPECIFIC HOST MOLECULES
    • PENETRATION - FLEXIBLE  CELL MEMBRANE OF THE HOST CELL IS PENETRATED BY THE WHOLE VIRUS OR ITS NUCLEIC ACID
    • ENDOCYTOSIS - ENTIRE VIRUS IS ENGULFED BY THE CELL ENVELOPED IN A VACUOLE
    • UNCOATING - ENZYMES IN VACUOLE DISSOLVE THE ENVELOPE AND CAPSID. VIRUS FUSES WITH THE WALL OF VESICLE
    •   - VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID RELEASED INTO CYTOPLASM
    •   - DIRECT FUSION - ENVELOPE MERGES DIRECTLY W/ CELL  MEMBRANE
    • SYNTHESIS REPLICATION & PROTEIN PRODUCTION -
    • IN GENERAL DNA VIRUSES ENTER THE HOST CELLS NUCLEUS ARE REPLICATED & ASSEMBLED INTO CYTOPLASM
    • ASSEMBLY - PUTS TOGETHER THE NEW VIRUS USING THE "PARTS" MANUFACTURED IN THE SYNTHESIS PROCESS: NEW CAPSID AND NEW NUCLEIC ACID
    • RELEASE - # OF VIRUSES RELEASED BY THE INFECTED CELL IS VARIABLE CONTROLLED BY HEALTH OF HOST CELL AND SIZE OF VIRUS
  17. PERSISTENT AND TRANSFORMING INFECTIONS
    • PERSISTENT - CAN LAST FROM A FEW WEEKS TO THE REMAINDER OF A HOST'S LIFE
    •   - CELL HARBORS VIRUS
    •   - NOT IMMEDIATELY LYSED
    •   - CAN REMAIN LATENT IN THE CYTOPLASM
    • TRANSFORMING - ( USED TO DESCRIBE CANCER CELLS )
    •   - INCREASED RATE OF GROWTH
    •   - ALTERATIONS IN CHROMOSOMES
    •   - CHANGES IN CELLS
    •   - CAPACITY TO DIVIDE FOR INFINITE PERIOD
  18. LYSOGENIC VS. LYTIC VIRUSES
    • LYSOGENIC - (SILENT VIRUS INFECT)
    •   - CONDITION IN WHICH HOST CHROMOSOME CARRIES VIRAL DNA BECAUSE VIRAL PARTICLES ARE NOT PRODUCED THE BACTERIA CELLS CARRYING TEMPERATE PHAGE DO NOT LYSE
    • LYTIC - WHEN A BACTERIUM ACQUIRES A NEW TRAIT FROM ITS TEMPERATE PHAGE. BAD NEWS FOR HOST
    •   - T EVEN BACTERIOPHAGES LYSE BACTERIAL CELL
  19. WHAT ARE HOST RANGE AND TROPISMS AND HOW DOES IT RELATES TO A VIRUS
    • HOST RANGE - LIMITED RANGE OF CELLS THAT A VIRUS CAN INFECT.
    •   - IE: HEP B - LIVER CELLS IN HUMANS
    •   - CELLS THAT LACK COMPATIBLE VIRUS RECEPTORS ARE RESISTANT TO ADSORPTION & INVASION BY THAT VIRUS
    • TROPISM - SPECIFICITIES OF VIRUSES FOR CERTAIN TISSUE
    •   - WHY VIRUSES CAN RESIDE IN CERTAIN PLACES
  20. DESCRIBE PENETRATION VIA ENDOCYTOSIS VS. DIRECT ENVELOPE INFUSION
    • PENETRATION VIA ENDOCYTOSIS - ENTIRE VIRUS IS ENGULFED BY THE CELL AND ENCLOSED IN A VACUOLE OR VESICLE
    • UNCOATING - ENZYMES IN THE VACUOLE DISSOLVE THE ENVELOPE AND CAPSID
    •   - VIRUS FUSSES WITH THE WALL OF THE VESCICLE
    •   - VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID IS RELEASED INTO THE CYTOPLASM

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