Veg Production Test 3

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jenmuz
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219219
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Veg Production Test 3
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2013-05-13 14:36:43
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AGP 343 Vegetable Production Test Cucurbits Herbs
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Cucurbits-Herbs, AGP343
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  1. Cucumber varieties that don't need pollination to produce fruit
    Parthenocarpic
  2. Some people's stomachs do not tolerate cucumbers well. Varieties that don't cause gas are called
    Burpless
  3. Which is not a Cucurbitaceae crop?
    A. Squash?
    B. Pepper
    C. Pumpkin
    D. Melon
    E. Cucumber
    B. pepper
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following statements about Cucurbitaceae crops is true?
    A. Usually have numerous small, oval leaves.
    B. Answers A and B are both true
    C. Vine crops with tendrils.
    D. Answers B and C are both true
    E. Warm-season, tender annuals
    D. B (vine crops with tendrils) and c (warm season, tender annuals) are both true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Most Cucurbitaceae crops are pollinated by
    Bees
  6. This crop needs to be picked often or it will slow or stop production of additional fruit.
    A. Cucumber
    B. Answers A and B are both true
    C. Summer squash
    D. Winter squash
    e. All of the above are true
    B. Answers a (cucumber) and b (summer squash) are both true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. T/F The critical time for watering of melons and watermelons is when the fruit are ripening
    F
  8. T/F You should grow melons and watermelons far enough away from cucumbers so their vines can't intertwine, because otherwise the melons will be bitter if their flowers are pollinated by cucumbers
    F
  9. T/F Recommendations in Missouri say to plant pumpkins around June 15 to 20th
    T
  10. T/F Pumpkins are tolerant of sulfur dioxide pollution, according to Knott's Handbook
    F
  11. A characteristic of this disease that attacks tomatoes is yellowing and the death of one side of the plant
    Verticillium wilt
  12. Blossom end rot of tomatoes is caused by a deficiency of
    calcium
  13. What states produce most of the tomatoes grown commercially in the US?
    California and Florida
  14. What type of tomatoes would be the best choice for fresh consumption over the entire growing season?
    Indeterminate
  15. Tomato blossoms will not set fruit effectively if night temperatures rise above what temp?
    around 70 F
  16. Do you usually plant transplants or seeds for tomatoes?
    transplants
  17. What country are tomatoes native to?
    South America
  18. T/F Vegetable crops in the Solanaceae family are all warm-season, tender perennials.
    T
  19. T/F Even though tomatoes are self-pollinated, bees including bumblebees are often used to get better fruit production
    T
  20. T/F Fresh market tomatoes have a higher wholesale value than processed tomatoes
    T
  21. T/F Americans consume on average of 25 pounds of tomatoes each year
    F
  22. T/F Orange tomatoes are more popular than other colors
    F
  23. T/F You should never remove axillary shoots from tomato plants because it causes wounds through which insects and pathogens can enter
    F
  24. The chemical that makes some peppers hot or pungent is
    Capsaicin
  25. This is the ratings scale used to rank peppers on how hot they are
    Scoville
  26. Per capita consumption of eggplant in the US is
    0.9 pounds
  27. T/F Bell peppers require higher temperatures than tomatoes, even though the plants are in the same family
    T
  28. T/F Pepper seeds germinate and grow faster than tomato seeds
    F
  29. T/F Americans consume more hot peppers than bell peppers
    F
  30. T/F Peppers require a slightly higher temperature and more water than tomatoes
    T
  31. T/F The vast majority of the eggplants grown in the US are for the fresh market
    T
  32. T/F Eggplants rank with okra as a very heat-tolerant crop
    T
  33. T/F Eggplants require a long growing season and thus are generally transplanted into the garden; however, they are actually difficult to transplant so you need to be careful not to damage the root system
    T
  34. What is the name of hot pepper?
    Capsicum chinesis
  35. Potatoes are native to
    South America
  36. What originated in the US when a resort chef tried to spite a wealthy guest who sent his sliced potatoes back because they were too thick?
    Potato chips
  37. Green potatoes are toxic because they contain an alkaloid called
    solanine
  38. Inca Indians in around 200 BC correlated units of time according to
    how long it took to cook a potato
  39. Should you use manure to fertilize a potato?
    No
  40. Can potatoes be grown in straw rather than in the soil?
    yes
  41. This US state dominates in production of potatoes
    Idaho
  42. This category ranks highest in consumption of potatoes among Americans
    frozen
  43. This is an indication that potatoes are ready to be harvested
    Foliage dies
  44. T/F Potatoes can withstand a light frost in the spring
    T
  45. T/F Potatoes are actually a modified stem rather than a root
    T
  46. T/F Colorado potato beetles overwinter as adults in the soil
    T
  47. T/F You can wait up to around two weeks after potatoes are mature to harvest them
    T
  48. How do you suberize potatoes and why would you?
    Store in a dark room with low to moderate heat and humidity. This gives the cut side of the potato time to heal over, which will prevent disease or insect troubles
  49. Carrots probably evolved from this
    Queen Anne's Lace
  50. Radishes mature how long after planting?
    3 to 5 weeks
  51. Which of these crops is a biennial?
    a. beet
    b. carrots
    c. radishes
    d. answers a and b are both true
    e. all of the above
    d
  52. Radishes originated in
    China
  53. This is the variety of carrot most often sold in grocery stores
    Imperator
  54. T/F Root crops typically have a long storage life
    T
  55. T/F Weed control is particularly important when carrot seedlings are young
    T
  56. T/F Radishes are a cool season crop
    T
  57. T/F Carrots are most nutritious when eaten raw
    F
  58. T/F Carrot leaves are edible
    T
  59. T/F Planting dill with tomato plants can help with insect/disease troubles
    T
  60. What are the sun and soil requirements for most herbs?
    most need full sun, soil doesn't necessarily need to be fertile (b/c they're native to locations where they don't have great soil quality)
  61. They say herbs of Mediteranean origin don't like wet feet. How do you grow them here, then?
    Raised beds help
  62. Parsley can be slow to germinate. What helps?
    • bottom heat
    • also soaking in warm water before planting
  63. How do you keep good herb production from your annuals?
    • regular water, especially when they're in containers
    • Also, remove developing flowers
  64. How much of your herb plant should you harvest to keep it producing?
    No more than 1/4 of the foliage
  65. when should you harvest herbs?
    • morning
    • use scissors
  66. To keep cilantro growing, what helps?
    re-sow every few weeks
  67. Dill attracts what kind of larvae?
    butterfly
  68. This is known as an easy perennial herb with edible flowers
    chives
  69. This does best in moist soil under part shade, but we tend to grow it in containers in full sun to keep it from taking over
    • mint
    • peppermint relaxes you, spearmint is invigorating
  70. Can you grow peppermint from seed?
    Nope
  71. These herbs are evergreens
    rosemary and sage
  72. This herb is not hardy here so you grow it in a container. It's prone to scale
    Bay tree
  73. This herb tolerates foot traffic and has daisy like flowers
    chamomile
  74. Growing seasons for cucurbits vary. Examples?
    • 3-4 months for watermelon, pumpkins
    • 2 mo. or less for cucumbers and squash
  75. Earliest record of humans eating this plant family were from Mexico, where seeds were found from more than 9,000 years ago and there is evidence of humans eating them in Egyptian tombs
    Cucurbits
  76. Cucurbitaceae crops are monoecious (male and females have separate flowers on the same plant). Which sex flower flowers first?
    Male
  77. Which variety should you grow if you want a giant pumpkin?
    Dill's Atlantic Giant
  78. Parthenocarpic means
    • the plant can set fruit without pollination (the frusits are nearly seedless)
    • these are usually gyonecious, which produces more fruit
  79. How can you tell if a flower is female?
    There's a swollen base under the flower's base where the fruit will form
  80. To get the best flavor from stored winter squash, what should you eat first?
    the smallest fruits
  81. You need to give this plant plenty of water early on but little to no water when it's ripining
    melons and watermelons
  82. How do you prevent disease for cucurbits?
    • resistant cultivars
    • crop rotation
    • control vectors
    • reflective mulches for aphids
    • yellow sticky traps (to monitor) 
    • fungicides
  83. Cucurbits are prone to blossom end rot, which is caused by a calcium deficiency. What should you keep in mind about this?
    • Soggy soil doesn't allow for good uptake of Ca. 
    • Can spray CaNO3 - 4T/g 2-3x week
    • You can also add lime to the soil
  84. If your watermelon has poor flavor and a lack of sweetness, what could be the trouble?
    • Poor soil fertility (Low K, Mg, B)
    • Cooler temps, wet weather
    • Poorly adapted cultivars
  85. One way to tell if watermelon is mature?
    it's yellow on the bottom where it's touching the soil
  86. What is the likely culprit if your watermelon fruits are splitting?
    excessive water at maturity
  87. Watermelon are native to
    Africa
  88. It has the largest known fruit of all flowering plants
    cucurbita maxima
  89. Typical insect pests for cucurbits
    • Cucumber beetles (vector bacterial wilt - especially important to control at seedling stage)
    • Aphids (transmit viral disease)
    • Worms
    • Squash bugs
    • Squash vine borers (get in base of stem, girdle in - can cut out if early stages)
  90. Common cucurbit diseases
    • Bacterial wilt
    • Powdery and downy mildew (fungus)
    • Alternaria blight (fungus)
    • Fusarium wilt (fungus)
    • Anthracnose on foliage or fruits (fungus)
    • Viruses including cucumber, squash, watermelon, zucchini, and yellow mosaic
  91. Production tips for cucurbits include planting in well-drained soil, starting seeds indoors (though you can direct sow) and mulching. Others?
    • Plant 3 to 5 hills per person
    • Taste is determined by sugar concentration (sugars produced during photosynthesis are vital so keep vines healthy and fertilized)
  92. What nutrient is watermelon high in?
    lycopene
  93. T/F Watermelon roots tend to be shallow but some have been known to reach 4 feet or more
    T
  94. Where does MO rank in watermelon production?
    • 11th in acreage and value
    • $6.2M
    • 2600 acres harvested
    • lower value per acre than some other states
  95. Top 5 watermelon production states?
    • FL (75%), CA, GA, TX, AZ
    • We are a net exporter
  96. Per capita consumption of watermelon?
    15 lbs
  97. For the last 35 years, this watermelon cultivar has landed the title of worlds biggest
    Carolina Cross
  98. Largest watermelon last year (raised in KY) was how big?
    273 lbs
  99. Some indicators that watermelon is ready to harvest?
    • tendrils near attach point turn brown and dry
    • surface color turns dull
    • skin resistant to thumbnail and is rough to touch
    • bottom of fruit turns yellowish
    • dull thud
  100. when you harvest watermelon, how much stem should be left on the fruit?
    about 1-1/2 inch
  101. Is it ok to store watermelon on its ends?
    • No - never do this
    • remember, they don't store for long, either (about 2 weeks or less)
  102. some post-harvest tips for watermelon?
    • avoid bruising, rough handling
    • no direct exposure to sun
    • old fruit develops darker, mealy texture
    • 45-50 degree storage is optimum
  103. Cucumis melo (melons) are categorized under different groups. Names?
    • Cantaloupensis
    • Indodorous
    • Flexuosus
    • Conomom, Dudaim and momordica
  104. Examples of melons in the cataloupensis group of cucumis melo?
    • muskmelon
    • cantaloupe
    • persian melon
  105. examples of melons in the indodorous group of cucumis melo?
    • honeydew
    • wintermelon
    • casaba
    • crenshaw
  106. examples of melons in the flexuosus group of cucumis melo?
    • snake or serpent melon
    • armenian cucumber
  107. Cantaloupe value
    $300M on 75,000 acres
  108. Honeydew value?
    50M on 15,000 acres
  109. Per capita consumption of cucumis melo?
    about 9.3 lbs
  110. top melon producing states?
    • CA, AZ, TX
    • we are a net importer (mostly from Mexico and Guatamala)
  111. Cucumis melo can take up a lot of space. How much?
    30 to 40 square feet
  112. Harvest tips for cucumis melo?
    • Fruits slip from stems when mature
    • highest sugar content is at full slip
    • harvest at half-slip if melons are going to be kept more than a few days
  113. what temp should you store muskmelons at?
    • 32-35 degrees F
    • cooling rapidly will decrease the respiration rate and the loss of sugars from the fruit
  114. can muskmelons get sunburn?
    • mature harvested fruits are easily sunburned
    • protect from full sun after harvest
  115. Pumpkin (cucurbita maxima or c. pepo) value?
    • $113M
    • 1.1B lbs on 47,300 acres
  116. What state dominates pumpkin production?
    IL
  117. Most pumpkin plants can reach a height of 18 to 24 inches. How far can they spread?
    50-100 square feet
  118. Most pumpkin roots reside in the top how many inches of a soil?
    12
  119. Pumpkins require the least amount of water of any cucurbit. Watering advice?
    • water after planting encourages rapid, even emergence
    • critical period also during blooming and early fruit set
    • pumpkins are susceptible to foliar disease, so drip irrigation helps
  120. 5 categories of pumpkin based on size?
    • giant (20 lbs and over)
    • jack o lantern (7 to 20)
    • small (5 to 7)
    • baby (2 to 4 lb)
    • mini (less than 1 lb)
  121. recommended date for planting pumpkins?
    June 15 - 20
  122. what if your pumpkin patch gets a heavy infestation of squash bugs?
    • you can harvest early, if the fruit has reached a mature green stage
    • the skin should be tough enough not to be punctured with a thumb nail
  123. how many hills per person of pumpkin should you plant?
    • 3-5 hills
    • doesn't matter if it's for fresh or processed
  124. Can pumpkins withstand a light freeze?
    yes, but temps in the mid to low 20s may injure the plant
  125. pumpkin harvest tips?
    • ready when rind or skin has toughened and stems have lost succulence
    • minimize dripping from stems
  126. do pumpkins store well? recommended temp?
    • in well-ventilated, cool (50-55degree) locals for 1-2 months
    • most growers harvest right before market delivery or sales
  127. say you want to store your pumpkins for more than a month. what's a good way to prolong storage time?
    cure at 80-85 degrees with a high relative humidity for 7 to 10 days
  128. how do you reduce fruit molds and rots from pumpkins?
    surface sterilization with 1:4 bleach water mix
  129. T/F pumpkin flowers are inedible
    F
  130. winter squash botanical names
    cucurbita moschata or c. maxima
  131. squash value/per capita consumption?
    • $283M on 43,000 acres
    • 4.4 lbs per capita
    • we import 300,000M lbs, mostly from Mexico
  132. Most summer squash is small, fast-growing, with mostly bush-type plants. The fruit tends to be consumed immature. What are the different types?
    • Straightneck with yellow bottle-shaped squash
    • Crookneck (yellow bottle shaped with curved necks)
    • Scallop (flattened and ridged around the edge, white, green, or striped)
    • Zucchini (intro-ed from Italy, native to Central America and Mexico, can be green or yellow)
  133. Summer squash tips?
    • successive plantings extend season
    • black plastic mulch can enhance early fruit harvest by 7-14 days
    • yields can double or triple with plastic mulch and drip irrigation
    • row covers increase air temp around plants, resulting in earlier fruiting
  134. Can squash and zucchini, acorn squash and pumpkin cross pollinate?
    yes, but they don't affect the current season crop
  135. What type of squash generally has more calories and nutrition, and is often used as a main course?
    • winter squash
    • they're generally high in Vitamin A
  136. types of winter squash
    • acorn
    • butternut
    • hubbard
    • buttercup
  137. acorn squash can be vine or bush type. benefits of bush?
    • planted more closely
    • typically higher yielding
  138. how do you know when it's time to harvest winter squash?
    • stems begin to shrivel and die
    • skin is hard, doesn't dent by thumbnail
    • leave a stub attached to the fruit
  139. why and how do you cure winter squash?
    • curing hardens the shell, ensures maturity and heals cuts or bruises
    • you cure by placing in 80-85 degrees at a relative humidity of 85 for 10 days
  140. what temps, humidity do you store winter squash at?
    • 50-55 degrees
    • 50-75 RH
  141. butternut squash stores for
    2-3 months
  142. acorn squash stores for
    up to 2 months
  143. where did cucumbers originate
    India
  144. A cucumber fruit is what percent water?
    95 percent
  145. what states are big in fresh cucumber production?
    • FL, GA
    • Fresh market value is $200M on 40,000 acres
  146. what was Missouri's largest vegetable crop in 2001?
    cucumbers
  147. what states are big in processed cucumber production?
    • MI, Maybe MO
    • Value is $1.7 M on 80,000 acres
    • 500,000 tons
  148. fresh market cucumbers are usually trellised and hand-harvested. what two types are common in greenhouses?
    • Dutch
    • Japanese
  149. Processed cucumbers are usually blocky and cylindrical. What's desirable?
    • uniform color
    • internal fruit structure
  150. since internal fruit structure is so important for processed cucumbers, what benefits do superior cultivars offer?
    relatively strong carpel sutures, small seed cavity, slow seed development
  151. what slicing cucumber cultivar has some resistance to bacterial wilt?
    county fair
  152. what happens if a cucumber plant is under heat, water or nutrient stress?
    the fruit can taste bitter
  153. when and how often should you harvest cucumbers for the fresh market?
    • before they're fully elongated
    • 6-10 inches
    • highest quality is dark green, firm, crisp
    • yellow skins not marketable
    • harvest several times a week
  154. when do you harvest processing cucumbers?
    • several stages of immature
    • hybirds with high and concentrated initial fruit set are best for mechanical once-over harvesting
  155. Cucumbers are sensitive to chilling injury. What temps does that occur at?
    • 50 degrees or lower
    • yellowing begins at 60 degrees
    • best temp for storage 54-56, 95% RH
  156. hydrocooling is often used to remove field heat and lower fruit temperatures of what fruit?
    cucumber
  157. cucumber days to maturity, according to Knotts?
    • pickling 48 (early variety) 58 (late)
    • fresh 55 (early variety), 70 (late)
  158. According to Knotts, are cucumbers sensitive to salt?
    moderately
  159. According to Knotts, are cucumbers tolerant of Boron in irrigation water?
    Not very. They're good with 1-2 ppm (while asparagus is cool up to 15 ppm, and beans, garlic and onions are only tolerant up to .5-1ppm)
  160. gyonecious cucumber plants have what benefits?
    fruit earlier and have higher yields
  161. Plants from this family are naturally self-pollinating, warm season tender perrenials, with some poisonous plants
    solanaceae
  162. where did solanaceae crops originate?
    Peru or mexico
  163. How many pounds of tomatoes do we eat each year?
    • 91.1 lbs
    • second in value of production and consumption only to irish potato
    • $2.2B industry
  164. do fresh or processed market tomatoes require more acreage?
    processing - takes up almost 3x as much acre
  165. optimal tomato temps?
    • 70-85 degrees F
    • No fruit set if above 94 during the day or greater than 70, less than 60 at night
  166. style exertion means
    the stigma is exposed and dries out
  167. are tomatoes transplanted or direct seeded?
    • fresh market, transplant
    • processed, direct seeded
  168. caging of tomatoes results in a 27% higher marketable yield. But what technique is most used?
    Stake and weave
  169. common tomato insects?
    • cutworms (often cut off plants close to soil, usually early in season)
    • hornworms (eat foliage and fruit)
    • fruitworms (eat holes in fruits and buds)
    • stalk borers (tunnel into stem, causes plants to wilt and die)
  170. Leaf miners and stink bugs are also common tomato pests. How do you know if you have them?
    • leaf miners travel inside leaf, leave white curly trails behind
    • stinkbugs suck juices, causing white spots to appear just below skin of fruit
  171. yet another tomato-sucking bastard is the spider mite. it leaves yellowish speckling on the foliage and produces very fine webbing. what are some management tips?
    • you can use kelthane insecticide
    • to see if you have it, you can place a piece of white plastic under the leaves, tap the leaves and see if little grains of pepper come off
  172. when can aphids become a problem with tomatoes?
    if there is fertilizer in the water
  173. what are the most common diseases among solanaceae crops?
    fungi
  174. early blight, late blight and bacterial spot are what kind of diseases?
    • foliar
    • often begin as spots on leaves or fruit
    • bacterial spot pathogen is becoming resistant to copper-based sprays
  175. Fusarium wilt is soilborne and can live in the soil for several years. Signs?
    • first symptom is yellowing of lower leaves
    • later - brown discoloration of vascular tissue, wilting, death
  176. according to knotts, how do symptoms of verticillium wilt differ from fusarium wilt?
    • appearance of disease on all branches at the same time, yellow areas become brown, midday wilting, dropping of leaves beginning at bottom
    • Knotts recommends using resistant varieties
  177. according to knotts, how do you prevent tomato spotted wilt virus?
    use a combination of resistant varieties, highly reflective mulch to repel the silverleaf white fly and plant activators
  178. If your tomato plants retain their green color but wilt rapidly, odds are they have
    bacterial wilt
  179. this can be caused by excessive soil moisture
    tomato leaf roll
  180. shipping fruit for tomatoes is usually ripened with
    ethylene
  181. for processed tomatoes, the harvest is usually done once, when 50-60 percent of the fruit are in the firm, ripe stage. what helps ?
    etephon hurries production
  182. greatest diversity of peppers is where?
    mexico, then guatemala
  183. the pepper industry is a $685M industry. Do we sell and eat more hot or bell peppers?
    • bell by far - 9.4lb per capita, $556M value
    • hot 6.6 lbs, $129M value
  184. US ranks 6th in world pepper production. who's number 1?
    china, by far
  185. if your pepper plants aren't fruiting, what could be the culprit?
    • temps lower than 60 or higher than 90
    • too much N
  186. Name a borer and two spots that are bad news for peppers
    • European corn borer
    • cercospora leaf spot
    • bacterial spot
    • resistant varieties are key
  187. when is paprika harvested?
    after a frost, so they dehydrate on the bush
  188. what two things should you not do to peppers post-harvest?
    • don't ice (below 45F, chilling injury)
    • don't immerse in water to cool (water can seep into fruit cavity and cause rot)
  189. optimum temps for peppers
    • 50F at 95RH
    • long term exposure of fruits to temps above 50 can cause them to change color, lose fresh weight and decay
  190. when do you plant eggplants?
    • wait until temps 65-70 degrees
    • long periods of cool temps reduce yields by causing flowers to drop
  191. for hotter peppers
    • wait until leaves are slightly wilting before water
    • can add supplemental sulfur (but don't change pH)
    • can tolerate increased N but peppers aren't as hot
  192. this has the highest level of nicotine of any edible plant
    • eggplant
    • but you need 20 lbs to = 1 smoke
  193. this is an antioxidant in the skin of the eggplant
    nasunin
  194. These tomatoes are best choice for canning, sauces, salsa and juice
    • saladette and sauce (paste, plum, pear, rocessing, saladette)
    • Romas, San Marzano, Roman
  195. Yellow and orange tomatoes are usually different compared to red and pink tomatoes how?
    tend to have less acid and a milder flavor
  196. Botanical name of potato?
    solanum tuberosum
  197. potatoes have maximum tuber formation at what temps?
    • between 60 and 70F
    • none at 80
  198. Per capita consumption of potatoes is 118 pounds
    mostly frozen
  199. potatoes grow best in what type of soil?
    fertile sandy loams
  200. why do you treat potatoes with a light dusting of ag sulfur before planting?
    guard against fungal diseases and potato beetles
  201. Potatoes' major insect problem is the Colorado potato beetle. How do adults, larvae act?
    • adults overwinter in soil and emerge same time as foliage - they feed on young foliage and deposit eggs on the underside of leaves, bottom 1/3 of plant
    • control larvae with systemic insecticides, foliar sprays or effective crop rotations
  202. to decrease the likeliehood of scab
    lower pH below 5.5
  203. beans and what have a symbiotic relationship?
    grains - eat them together and you have all your amino acids
  204. green bean fresh market top states are CA and GA, for processed green beans, look to WI. For dry beans, what state is tops?
    North Dakota
  205. the optimal temp for soil germination for beans is 86F. What's the optimal temp for growing?
    between 60-70F
  206. Legumes get much of their N from
    • Rhizobia
    • can innoculate
  207. rust appears on the bean leaves as
    reddish brown blisters
  208. If your peas are in well-drained soils, what diseases may be less common?
    fusarium wilt and root rot
  209. peas are primarily grown for fresh or processed?
    processed
  210. peas should be cooled to about 32F post-harvest to reduce moisture loss and preserve sugar. can they be iced?
    yes
  211. Corn is a heavy feeder, especially of Nitrogen. It doesn't have an extensive root system, considering its size. How does it compensate?
    with density rather than range
  212. common foliar insects for corn?
    • ear worms (mineral oil near silks, vinegar and water)
    • army worms
    • flea beetles 
    • aphids
  213. common soil corn insects?
    • cutworms
    • wire worms
  214. This corn problem is caused by bacterium transmitted by the flea beetle
    stewarts wilt
  215. sweet corn is sensitive to ozone and flouride air pollutants. is it tolerant of anything?
    Sulfur dioxide
  216. Beets are sensitive to soil acidity. what's a good range?
    6-6.8, will tolerate up to 7.6
  217. This carrot disease results in multiple tops and a large number of hair like roots, is vectored by leaf hoppers and it's recommended that you rogue infected plants
    Aster Yellows
  218. It's recomended that you fertilize beets every 3-4 weeks with what kind of fertilizer?
    Low-N, organic, high in P and K
  219. rich fertile well drained soil is important for radishes. what's not so important?
    chemical weed control
  220. short day onion cultivars bulb during daylengths of 11-10 hours. types?
    european or bermuda onions
  221. intermediate day onion cultivars bulb with daylengths between 12-14 hours. examples?
    tend to be pungent with soft flesh
  222. long day cultivars (onions) need daylengths of 14-16 hours. examples?
    american or spanish onions
  223. T/F Garlic is best grown under warmer and drier conditions than onions
    T
  224. Onion troubles - onion maggots. when are these a bigger problem?
    moist soils with high organic matter
  225. onion troubles - pink root is caused by?
    • soilborne fungus
    • buy resistant varieties
  226. hardneck garlic v. softneck?
    • hardneck - seed stalks, better in colder climates, larger, easier to peel
    • softneck - no seedstalks, cultivated over longer period of time, stores longer
  227. do you stop irrigating garlic when?
    at maturity (stalks fall over)
  228. when's a good time to remove mulch and spread some compost on your garlic beds?
    when daffodil leaves are a few inches out of the ground
  229. Is there a difference between male and female asparagus?
    males produce 3x as much spears
  230. asparagus fertilizer can be broadcast or plowed in. recommended amounts?
    • 1.7 lbsN/1000 sf
    • .6-4.6lbs PK/1000sf
  231. what does an asparagus beetle look like?
    • 1/4" long with blue-black wing covers and creamy yellow spots with red borders
    • overwinters as adult in crop residue
    • feeds on spear tips as spears emerge
    • lay eggs on spears
  232. edible flowers
    • calendula
    • mustard
    • chicory
    • safflower
    • scented geraniums
    • hibiscus
  233. the asparagus crown is what exactly?
    • the interface between fern and root system
    • tuberous and lateral roots
    • spears are immature ferns
  234. what was the first vegetable grafted to squash rootstock?
    watermelon
  235. most watermelon is grafted by what method
    • insertion
    • tongue approach is slower, not as successful
  236. cucumber grafts are done mostly
    in asia
  237. what country is really good at grafting the cucurbits?
    south korea
  238. timeline for grafting tomatoes?
    • roughly 5 weeks
    • plant rootstock first 
    • 1-2 sets of leaves is desirabe
  239. after you graft tomatoes, what happens?
    move to healing chamber - 7 days partial dark, 7 days full sun
  240. Robots from Korea can make how many grafts an hour?
    600-1200
  241. 1st vegetable grafting was done when?
    • 1920s - watermelon (fusarium wilt resistance)
    • 1960s eggplant

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