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Gram Stain appearance?
Small GPB, often presenting as cocco-bacillary, pleomorphic, pallisades or chinese letter like appearance.
- Small, grayish white may or may not be hemolytic
- Tellurite Cysteine Agar CTBA:
- Small Black colonies
- Grayish black colonies with a brown halo
- Nitrate & Catalase
- Esculin & Motilitiy
- Toxin testing: (tests for toxin phage
- in vitro: culture and antitoxin in rabbit
- in vitro: immunodiffusion
- Usually presents as a repiratory disease or occasionally cutaneous inf.
- Spread person to person
Rare due to vaccinations.
Pathogenesis & virulence factors
- Invasion: bacterai colonize and proliferate in local tissues of the throat creating pseudomembrane.
- Toxigenesis: Bacteria produce an exotoxin which causes the death eukaryotic cells and tissues by inhibition of cell protein systhesis.
Penicillin or erythromycin
- Normal on skin
- disease causing in some immunocompromised or noscomial
- Antimicrobial resistance.
- Line related infections