exam 1 review

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exam 1 review
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2013-05-12 15:27:25
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exam 1 review
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  1. For a molecule like an amino acid that  is transported across a membrane by carriers, the net transport of the molecule will tend to incrase as
    c the number of carriers in the cell's membrane increases
  2. A solution is found to have a pH of 11. Which of the following statements is true
    b. the solution is 10,000 times les acidic than water
  3. in secondary active transport of amino acids that occurs in the intestine and kidneys, which of the following would be true?
    c ions like sodium are actively pumped out of cells
  4. which of the following is NOT true of all living organismss?
    b a nuceeus must be present in cells and contain dna
  5. Which of the reactions below that occurs in water illustrates the existence of an ionic bond
    d kcl - K+ + Cl-
  6. the polysaccharide that serves as energy storage in the body
    B is a lipid made from steroids
  7. If a foreign antigen invades the connective tissues beneath the skin mast cells release a compound called histamine that promotes inflammation together with a hormone called prostaglandin that causes neighboring mast cells to secrete more histamine and prostaglandins. The response is best described as a case of
    c positive feedback
  8. An example ofkinetic energy would include which of the following?
    d a and c-- atp splitting to form ADP pluus a phosphate ion, the enzyme sucrase twisting to split sucrose into glucose and fructose monosaccharides
  9. the heart and smooth muscle are unique tissues that have structural adaptations that allow cells to conduct a stimulus from one cell to another, allowing an entire organ to be stimulated from a single point. The structure that allows for this physiological property is
    A gap junction
  10. Which of the folowing is NOT ture about diffusion in the body
    b diffusion can only occur if cell embranes have channels or transport proteins
  11. The substance CH3COOH dissociates in water leaving leaving some CH#COOH as well as some H+ and CH3CHOO- ata pH of 2.4. If a small amount of the base KOH is added to the solution the pH remains at 2.4. What is true of theis system?
    c the solution is a buffer
  12. Individual skeletal muscle cells are connected by junctions that allow contraction forces to be transmitted cell to cell on through to the tendons at each end. These junctions also prevent cells from being separated by forces generated during contraction. This type of cell junction is
    B a desmosome
  13. In the bicarbonate buffer system of humans the weak acid is
    A H2CO3
  14. Cells of the intestinal epithelium must be able to prevent movement of molecules past the epithelium except for those that are transported through the cytoplasm. the cellular structure that seals the gaps between cells to precent diffusion around the vcells is
    D tight junction
  15. Increased permeability of membranes can be caused by
    c increased percentage of unsaturated fatty in the membrane phospholipids
  16. The extracellular matrix of cells
    E all of the above--contain unbound proteins, includes glycolipids, forms the space betwween celss that contains the eztracellular fluid.
  17. An example of homeostasis that occurs in human is illustrated which of the following ?
    D a and B-increase in heart rate when blood vessels dilate, the liver absorbing glucose durng meals, then secreting glucose between meals.
  18. The sodium potassium pump is an important example of active transport in cells. Whch of the follwoing is true about the Na/K pump?
    B ATP energizes a single protein that moves sodium and potassium through the cell membrane.
  19. Science is described as a way of knowing the facts about naturally occuring events. Which of the following must be true for any scientific study
    D a and B you must be able to observe of measure the phenom, you must be able to make a prediction that can be rejected by your observations
  20. Organelles that are important for storage of accumulated materials like neutral fats (adipocytes), nerootransmitters (neurons) or hormones (endocrine glands) include
    C vesicles
  21. Steroids are important in the body because
    C they act as signal molecules (hormones)
  22. A hypothesis in science is
    a general explanation about how some natural process should work
  23. Which of the following is true for mixtures in the body?
    C a solutions contains colute particles that are too small to separate from the solvent.
  24. Tandom motion of molecules that cannot used to perform work is defined as
    • A heat
    • (I wrongly answered kinetic energy)
  25. Carbon monoxide is a dangerous nonpolar gas emitted during incomplete combustiopn. In a closed environment breathing CO will squickly be absorbed into the blood. What is the mechanism by which CO gets into the blood?
    Simple diffusion across the lung epithelia
  26. Important functions that the phospolipids in cell membranes provide include
    C providing a selective barrier to movement of molecules across the membrane
  27. A doctor treating a patient with high blood pressure observes that reducing salt intake lowers the patient's mean arterial pressure. The doctor notes that restricing salt in the diet also produces a drop in blood pressure. The doctor concludes that a significant contributor to high blood pressure is excess dietary salt intake. this is an example of
    A inductive reasoning
  28. After completing a marathon in hot weather, a runner rapidly drinks 1 liter of filtered water to try to rehadrate. The runner's plasma ion concentration immediately drops to 250 milliosmoles in contrast to the cells at 350 mO due to dehydration. What is the effect of this imbalance?
    C Water will diffuse into the tissues casusing swelling and damage to some cells.
  29. A fragment of a chromosome has the nuceeotide sequence CCAATGGATACTAAA. What does the mRNA made from this fragment look like?
    • C GGUUACCUAUGAUUU
    • (remember T and A, Gail and Crook)
  30. The pH of a solution changes from 7.6 to 5.6 what is true about the change is pH?
    • A there is a 100x increase in hydrogen ions in the solution
    • (change of 2 zeroes, more H is more acid)
  31. Transport proteins in cellular membrane are essential for movement of which of the follwoing across the membranes?
    D a and b sodium ions, protein an amino acid transmitters
  32. Detoxification of potentially harmful molecules is performed by enzymes in which cellular structures?
    D a and b, peroxisomes and smooth ER
  33. ATP is an important molecule in the physiology in the physiology os cells that
    • A is derived from a nucleotide
    • (apparently it is not a globular protein?)
  34. a pathologist studying cancers of the throat examines 100 tissue amples from affected patients. SHE obserbes that the same region of the epidermis is the source of tumors in 95% of the patients and concludes that the tumors of the throat originate in cells of the stratum spinosum. Which approach to science?
    A discovery science
  35. Which of the following is true about acids in the body?
    c they increase the number of protons in body fluids
  36. Fatty acids are synthesized n the liver from short carbon segments that are linked together into long chains by enzymes that force individual carbon atoms together until electrons of each atom merge into a shared orbital. This makes the fatty acid chain stable with significant stored and is an example of what kind of chemical bond?
    D covalent
  37. Which of the folllwing is true for neutral fats?
    D b and c they ar comounds of glycerol and three fattry acids, the basic building block of a neutral fat is glycerol plys three fatty acids.
  38. The organic compounds that make up much of the structural support of the body and individual cells are usually
    c proteins
  39. if a person has no expeienece with a particular food and the initial taste is bitter, ost will reflexively gat or spit the food from their mouth. This is an example of what?
    A responsiveness to stimuli
  40. Proteins are synthesized in the body from
    D amino acids

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