Foundations of Research

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cdwinkey
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219265
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Foundations of Research
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2013-05-13 00:09:57
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Master Program Research
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Christel
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  1. What documents are included in literature reviews?
    Includes documents such as articles, dissertations, reviews, etc.
  2. Purpose of a literature review
    conducted in areas where little previous research exists and some meaningful problems remain in heavily researched areas of study
  3. Purpose of Lit Review
    1. Determine what has already been done on your topic.

    ☀provides information so you don't duplicate existing research

    ☀provides info to help you frame your study in what has already been conducted before your work.

    ☀helps you identify research strategies and data collection mechanisms that have and have not worked in the past

    ☀facilitates the interpretation of results
  4. Scope of a lit review
    ☀Can be difficult to determine what to include

    ☀Avoid determining relationships

    ☀(lots of literature)Review ONLY those directly related to problem

    ☀(limited literature) Cast a larger net and include previous work that is related to the problem
  5. Qualitative Research Review
    ☀Qualitative researchers may not review the lit in-depth before beginning a research study

    ☀Topics emerge over time

    ☀Reviewing too much literature may compromised inductive process of qualitative research

    ☀Demonstrates underling assumptions critical to questions

    ☀researcher is knowledgeable about related research

    ☀Helps identify gaps in literature and may provide rationale for additional research

    ☀Assists in refining research questions & guides working hypotheses
  6. Steps in conducting a literature review
    1. Identify and make a list of keywords to guide search

    2. Locate primary and secondary sources

    3. Evaluate quality of sources

    4. Abstract your sources

    5. Analyze and organize sources using lit matrix

    6. Write lit review
  7. How do you identify keywords?
    • 1. Make a list of words to guide search
    • 2. Consult indexes to identify keywords
    • 3. Consider logical keywords and alternatives
    • 4. Keywords can narrow a literature search
  8. Abstracting sources
    • Primary sources are preferred
    •     *Contain first hand information (articles)

    • Secondary sources
    •     *Second-hand info: not written by the person who did the study (reviews)
  9. How to search for books on your topic
    • 1.Use the library
    •   A.Library catalogs
    •   B.Boolean operators (AND and NOT narrow search; OR broadens search)
    •   C. Field qualifiers: date range, author, publication type
  10. Using Computer Databases for Literature Revies
    • 2.Consult computer databases 
    •   A.keywords 
    •   B.select database (ERIC, Education Index, PsycINFO, Dissertation abstracts) 
    •   C.specify search strategy
  11. Literature Review: Searching the Web
    • *very extensive
    • *very current
    • *lacks quality control
    • *too much content: overwhelming
  12. What are some websites for educational research?
    • CSTEEP
    • NCES
    • US Department of Education
  13. What are some professional organizations for literature reviews?
    • NCTM
    • AERA
    • APA
    • ASCD
    • IRA
  14. Questions to ask yourself in evaluating sources
    1. What was the problem statement of the study?  Is it related to MY problem?

    2. Who was studied? 

    3. Where was the source published? Referred Journal? Person's opinion?

    4. When was the research conducted?  Recent?  Up-to-date?

    5.  How was the study conducted? Objective and impartial? Evidence? Appropriate data collection?
  15. Abstracting sources
    Abstracts are summaries that provide hypotheses, procedures, conclusions

    When you abstract you REVIEW, SUMMARIZE, and CLASSIFY references.
  16. Steps for Abstracting Sources
    • 1. read the abstract to determine relevance.
    • 2. skim the entire article and make mental notes on main idea
    • 3. write a bibliographic reference
    • 4. classify and code article
    • 5. abstract or summarize source
    •    -main points of author's opinion
    •    -state problem, procedures, main findings
    •    -note special aspects relevant to your study/suggestions by author
    • 6. thoughts that come to your mind (disagreements, questions, anything unclear)
    • 7. statements that or quotes or paraphrases to assist you in avoiding plagiarism (include page numbers)
  17. What are refereed journals?
    Refereed materials are significant to the research and the literature of most academic fields because they assure readers that the information conveyed is reliable and timely.  (Peer Reviewed)
  18. Stating a QUANTITATIVE research problem
    emphasis is on the need to explain, predict, or describe some outcome or event
  19. Stating a QUALITATIVE research problem
    research problem focuses on exploring some process, event, or phenomenon
  20. How to do a statement of purpose in a quantitative study
    adeclarative statementthat identifies the type of relationship being investigated between a set of variables

    could be causal or descriptive

    Examples: "The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect that treatment for a learning disability has on the spelling proficiency of children with a learning disability"  OR  "The purpose of this study is to describe the degree of relationship that exists between spelling pro­ficiency and the extent of a person's learning disability."
  21. Statement of purpose in a qualitative study
    a statement that the intent of the study is to explore or understand some phenomenon experienced by certain individuals at a specific research site.
  22. Statement of a quantitative research questions
    an interrogative sentence that asks a question about the relationship that exists between two or more variables
  23. Types of questions in quantitative research
    Descriptive - seeks answers to how much, how often, what changes over time or over different situations

    Predictive - seek to determine whether one or more variables can be used to predict some future outcome

    Casual - compare different variations of some phenomenon to identify the cause of something
  24. Inductive Reasoning
    develop generalizations based on observation of a limited number of related events or experiences
  25. Deductive reasoning
    arriving at specific conclusions based on general principles, observations, or experiences

    -all textbooks include chapters about xyz
  26. Scientific method
    • -recognition of a problem
    • -formulate hypotheses
    • -data collection
    • -data analysis
    • -statement of conclusions
  27. Limitations of Scientific Method
    • -can not answer all questions (philosophical or ethical)
    • -can't capture full richness of context
    • -measurement error is a limitation
  28. Approaches to educational research
    • -both collect and analyze data
    • -derive conclusions and interpretations
  29. Approaches to Ed. Research
    Quantitative data
    • -numerical data
    • -describes, predicts or controls variables
    • -world is relatively uniform, stable, and predictable
    • -state hypothesis, control context
    • -identify large samples
    • -interested in statistical significance
  30. Approaches to Ed. Research
    Qualitative Reserach
    • -narrative and visual
    • -gains insight into interest
    • -knowledge is situated and contextual. different perspectives
    • -form foreshadowed problems - don't control, but explain context
    • -large amount of data collected over extended periods of time
    • -data categorized into patterns
  31. Approaches to Ed. Research
    Survey Reserach
    • -reports current status of subjects
    • -often collects numerical data to test hypothesis or answer questions
    • -may examine preferences, attitudes, opinions
  32. Approaches to Ed. Research
    Correlational Reserach
    • -provides quantitative measure of relationship between or among variables
    • -do not indicate cause/effect relations among variables
  33. Approaches to Ed. Research
    Casual-Comparative Reserach
    • -attempts to determine the cause or reason for existing differences
    • grouping variable is potential cause
    • dependent variable is the effect
    • -provides limited cause-effect data
  34. Characteristics of a good topic
    • interesting
    • researchable
    • theoretical or practical importance
    • ethical
    • manageable given current skills, resources, and time
  35. Guidelines for hypotheses
    • based on sound reasoning and is consistent with existing theory or is from previous research
    • provides and explanation for predicted outcome
    • defines variables and states expected relations
    • testable within a reasonable time frame
  36. Inductive hypothesis
    generalization based on observations

    EX: researcher observes students are motivated by praise
  37. Deductive hypothesis
    derived from theory and provides evidence

    EX: based on theories, a researcher forms the hypothesis that students will attend to moving objects in an ed. computer game
  38. Nondirectional Hypothesis
    states that a relationship or difference exists within variables

    EX: There are differences between male and female students in a spatial ability.
  39. Directional Hypothesis
    states the expected direction of the relationship or difference among variables

    EX: male students will outperform female students on a test of spatial ability
  40. Null Hypothesis
    • There is no significant relationship between variables
    • stated when there is little existing research or theoretical support for a hypothesis
    • more conservative than directional
    • most studies are not based in the null


    EX: There are no significant differences in spatial ability between males and females.
  41. Nominal Variables
    • describe categorical data
    • -gender, political party, school attended, marital status
    • qualitative
    • range on a continuum with ordinal, interval, and ratio data
  42. Dependent Variables
    • depend on or to be caused by another variable
    • also referred to as CRITERION variables
  43. Independent variables
    hypothesized cause of teh dependent variable.  there must be at least two levels of an independent variable.

    also called an EXPERIMENTAL, MANIPULATED, or TREATMENT variables
  44. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Instruments
    Qualitative: interviews/observations

    Quantitative: multiple choice/essay

    Performance: completing a project
  45. Affective Instruments Measure:
    affective characteristics: attitude, emotion, interest, personality

    attitude scales measure what a person believes or feels: Likert scales measure agreement on a scale (strongly agree, agree....)

    Thurstone and Guttman Scales also used to measure attitudes
  46. Criterion Related Validity
    Concurrent: scores are correlated to scores on an alternative test given at the same time (different reading tests)

    Predictive: degree to which a test can predict how well a person will do in a future situation (GRE)
  47. Construct Validity
    • most important form
    • assesses what the test is actually measuring
    • challenging to establish construct validity
    • requires confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence
  48. Consequential Validity
    • refers to the extent an instrument creates harmful effects for the user 
    • -ex a measure of anxiety makes the person anxious
  49. Locations for obtaining reviews about tests:
    • MMY: mental measurement yearbook (most comprehensive)
    • Pro-Ed Publications
    • ETS Test Collection Database
    • Professional Journals
    • Test publishers/distributors
  50. Measures of Central Tendancy
    • Mean: describes interval or ratio data (most preferred, influenced by extreme scores)
    • Median: describes ordinal data
    • Mode: describes nominal data
  51. Measures of Variability
    • Range: not a stable measure
    • Quartile deviation: subtract the cutoff point for the lower quartile from the cutoff point for the upper quartile and divide by 2, we get QD. - a small number indicates little variability and scores are close together
    • Variance: the amount of spread among scores
    • Standard deviation: score root of the variance (used with interval and ratio data)  Most commonly used to measure variability
  52. Measures of Relative Position
    two most frequenty used measures are Percentile Ranks and Standard Scores

    Percentile Ranks: indicate the % of scores that fall at or below a given score. Appropriate for ordinal data and used for interval data. Rank of 50 indicates the median scores

    Standard Scores: expresses how far an individuals score is from the mean.

    Z-Score: most basic & most often used standard score. Directly tied to standard deviation. A score that represents the mean has a z-score of 0. A score at 1 standard deviation above the mean has a z-score of 1.

    T-Score: standard score, sometimes used instead of z-score. multiply z-score by 10 and add 50, transforms scores so there are no negative values.
  53. Pearson r
    • statistic used to calculate relationship for interval or ratio data
    • takes into account EVERY score
    • most stable measure of a relationship
  54. Spearman rho
    • used to calculate relationship with ordinal data
    • other tests include Gamma, Kendall's tau)
    • Spearman is most popular
  55. Type I Error
    The researcher incorrectly rejects the null hypothesis

    True status of null hypothesis: TRUE, Researcher rejected hypothesis: Type I Error
  56. Type II Error
    The researcher incorrectly fails to reject the null hypothesis but a true difference exists

    True status of null hypothesis FALSE (should be rejected), researcher does not reject): Type II Error
  57. t- test
    • used to determine whether two groups of scores are significantly different
    • compares the observed difference between means with difference expected by chance
    • for independent samples is a parametric test of significance
    • for noninterdpendent samples used to determine if differences exist formed through matching (systematically related)
  58. ANOVA
    • used to avoid the error rate problems of conducting multiple tests
    • parametric test to determine whether scores from two or more groups are significantly different at a selected probability
  59. f ratio
    • F-ratio computed to determine if samples are too different
    • calculated based on variance between groups/variance within groups
    • larger the f ratio, more likely there are differences among groups
  60. Chi Square
    • nonparametric test
    • tests differneces between groups when the data are frequency counts/percentages/proportions converted into frequencies
    • true category - people naturally fall into
    • artificial category - defined by the researcher
  61. Qualitative Data Collection
    • fieldwork - materials gathered, recorded, compiled
    • narrative and visual
    • observation
    • field notes
    • interviews
    • questionnaires
    • documents: archival documents, journals, maps, videotapes, artifacts
  62. Validity and Reliability
    • credibility
    • transferability
    • dependability
    • confirmability
    • descriptive validity
    • interpretive validity
    • theoretical validity
    • evlauative validity
    • gneralizational validity

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