# Week 1

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1. Information collected in narrative form.
Qualitative data
2. Information collected in numeric form.
Quantitative data
3. Variable hypothesized cause of or influence on the dependent variable.
Independent Variable
4. Variable hypothesized to depend on or be caused by another variable; the outcome of interest.
Dependent Variable
5. Having a finite number of values between any two points.
Discrete
6. Able to take on an infinite (in theory) range of values between two points on a continuum.
Continuous
7. The assignment of numbers to objects to designate the quantity of an attribute, according to specified rules.
Measurement
8. Lowest level of measurement; involving the assignment of characteristics into categories with no particular order.
Nominal
9. Level of measurement that yields a rank ordering of a variable along a specified dimension.
Ordinal
10. Level of measurement that involves assigning numbers to indicate both the ordering on an attribute and the distance between different amounts of the attribute.
Interval
11. Level of measurement of attributes in which there are equal distances between score units and a true meaningful zero point.
Ratio
12. Collective term for interval or ratio data.
Scale
13. Statistics used to describe and summarize data.
Descriptive Statistics
14. Statisticsthat rely on the laws of probability to help researchers draw conclusions about sample characteristics in terms of their relationship to populations.
Inferential Statistics
15. The entire set of individuals having some characteristic.
Population
16. A subset of a population selected for study.
Sample
17. Systematic array of data values together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained.
Frequency distribution
18. The count of the number of cases with a given score value.
Absolute frequency
19. A grouping of continuous variable data such that is can be displayed in a grouped frequency distribution.
Class intervals
20. A graphical display of a frequency distribution, generally for a
categorical variable.
Bar graph/chart
21. A graphical display showing a relative frequency distribution in a circle.
Pie Chart
22. A graphical display of a frequency distribution in which dots connected by a straight line indicate the number of times a score value occurs.
Frequency polygon
23. Characteristic
of a frequency distribution describing the number of peaks.
Modality
24. Having one peak.
Unimodal
25. A distribution with two sides that are mirror images; a non-skewed
distribution.
Symmetric distribution
26. A distribution that is asymmetric.
Skewed distribution
27. A distribution with a pointed, thin peak.
Leptokurtic
28. A distribution with a low, wide-spread peak.
Playkurtic
29. Theoretical distribution that is symmetrical, unimodal, not too peaked, nor too flat.
Normal distribution
30. Indexes that come from the center of a distribution, describing a “typical” value.
Measures of Central Tendency
31. The score or value that occurs most frequently in a distribution.
Mode
32. The exact middle score in a distribution; the score above and below which 50% of the scores lie.
Median
33. The arithmetic average of a distribution, calculated by summing all scores and dividing by the number of scores.
Median
34. The difference between the highest and lowest value in a distribution.
Range
35. A descriptive statistic for measuring the degree of variability in a set
of score
Standard deviation
36. A measure of dispersion of a distribution; equal to the standard deviation squared.
Variance
37. Scores or values expressed in terms of standard deviations away from the mean.
Standard scores
38. Standard scores when the distribution is normal.
Z scores
39. Two-dimensional table that displays a crosstabulation of two categorical variables.
Contingency table
40. Two-dimensional table that displays a crosstabulation of two categorical variables.
Contingency table
41. A relationship between two continuous variables such that, when plotted in a scatterplot, a straight line is formed.
Linear relationship
42. A graph depicting the relationship between two continuous variables.
Scatterplot
43. An index that summarizes the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables.
Correlation coefficient
44. A relationship in which high values of one variable are associated with high values in another variable.
Positive relationship
45. A relationship in which high values of one variable are associated with low values in another variable.
Negative relationship
46. Designates the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two measured on at least the interval level.
Pearson’s r
 Author: FlawlessEra ID: 21930 Card Set: Week 1 Updated: 2010-06-03 20:19:03 Tags: week Folders: Description: vocab for week 1 Show Answers: