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A stable enduring quality that a person shows in most situations.
A style of personality defined by a group of related traits.
A person whose attention is directed outward; a bold outgoing person.
Regarding oneself as a worth while person. A positive evaluation of oneself.
Big 5 Personality Test
- -Extroversion- how introverted or extroverted one is
- -Agreeableness- how friendly, nurturing, and caring a person is.
- -Conscientious- Self-discipline, responsible, achieving.
- -Openness to Experience- intelligent and open to new ideas.
Han Essence- Personality Theory
A system of concepts, assumptions, ideas and principles used to understand and explain personality.
Freuds Psychosexual Theory
- -Oral Stage- infants - pleasure by mouth
- -The anal stage -age 1 to 3 - determined by how child is toilet trained. (Anal Retentive/expulsive)
- -Latency- To puberty - quiet time in development
- -Genital Stage- activates all of unresolved conflicts of earlier years. (Social sexual relationships)
Neo Freudian - Alfred Adler
- Striving for superiority, believed we are social people governed by social urges- not biological instincts
- -Inferiority makes us want to be superior.
- -People create their personality through choices and experiences. (Creative-self)
Neo Freudian - Karen Horney
- Rejected "anatomy is destiny.
- -Challenged males were greater than females
- -Disagreed with causes of neurosis.
- -Basic anxiety comes from someone feeling lost or helpless in a hostile environment.
Neo Freudian - Carl Jung
- -Rejected ego stuff
- -Introversion and extroversion
- -Archetypes are found in collective unconscious.
- -Self archetype is most important.
- -Efficient perception of self reality-honesty
- -Comfortable acceptance of self, others and nature
- -Task centering- mission to fulfill.
- -Anatomy- Independent
- -Continued freshness of appreciation- appreciate goodness of everyday things
Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials and behavior.
Humanistic View - Parts of,
- -Free Choice- Ability to choose not controlled by genetics, learning or unconscious forces.
- -Human Nature- Traits , qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of humans
- -Subjective Experience- Private perceptions of reality
Masculine/ Feminine personality.
Social Learning Theory
- An explanation of personality that combines personality principles, cognition, and the effects of social relationships.
- -Actions triggered by an expectancy-response will lead to reinforcement. REINFORCEMENT VALUE
Self Efficacy - Social Learning Thry
Belief in yourself to produce a desire result.
Self Reinforcement - Social Learning Thry
Praising or rewarding ones self for having made a particular response.
MMPI-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
567 True false questions
Rorschach Inkblot Test- Oldest
- -10 standard inkblots
- -detects emotional disturbances.
TAT - Thematic Apperception Test
Test consisting of 20 different stories and real life situations which the respondent make up stories.
- -Enviornment- women who have influenza or rubella during pregnancy, Hostile environments violence and abuse
- Heredity- May inherit the potential to develop schizophrenia - very few schist have kids.
- Brain Chemistry- Disturbances in brain chemicals occur. Related to over activity in brain dopamine systems.
Only sadness, despondency, and depression
People go up and down in moods not just depression.
A person who lacks a conscience, is emotionally shallow, impulsive selfish and manipulative.
- -Free Association- technique - having patient say anything that comes to mind
- -Dream Analysis- analyzing dreams
- -Resistance - A blockage in the flow of free association topics the client resist thinking/talking about.
- -Transference - The tendency of patients to transfer feelings to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important person in their past.
Myths of Psychotherapy
- -Psychotherapy is not equally effective for all problems
- -More complex problems can be difficult to solve
- -The most extreme causes may not respond to psychotherapy at all, leaving medical therapy as the only viable treatment options.
- -Intend to help clients gain deeper insight into their thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
- -NOT ACTIONS just insight
- Therapy that helps clients change thinking patterns that lead to problematic behaviors or emotions.
- -Successfully treats Anxiety, PTSD, Mental Issues, and depression.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
Goal-To change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problems.
- -Positive Reinforcement
- -Non reinforcement and Extinction
- -Stimulus Control
- -Time Out
- -Pharmacotherapy- use of drugs
- -Electroconclusive therapy - electroshock
- -Psychosurgery therapy - disconnecting frontal lobes from part of the brain.
Future of Therapy
- -More Therapy-lower cost
- -more short term therapy and solution focused
- -more precise medical therapies with fewer side effects
- -more group therapies and paraprofessionals
- -increase use of internet and phone counseling.