CRJ 301

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CRJ 301
2013-05-13 03:47:41
Criminal Justice

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  1. Quantitative Research
    • Data sources that do not normally mean the use of numbers
    • Collect numerical data to explain, predict, and/or control phenomena of interest 
  2. Quantitative Research
    • Types of designs
    •    Survery: Interviews, Mail, Telephone
    •    Field research: How many vehicles run a certain stop sign 
    •    Existing data (secondary data): data has already been gather by a researcher for another purpose
  3. Question Format
    • Closed ended- List of answer choices
    •    Number of Points of Scale
    •    Don't Know Response
    •    Unbalances scale
  4. Question Format
    • Open ended
    • -provide participants an opportunity to respond using their own words or numbers
    • -preferred over closed-ended questions when the researcher does not want to influence the participants’ answer by offering them a response choice
    • -obtaining richer data than if researchers had asked the same question in a closed-ended format
    • Conflicting opinions
    •     Cons•the cost outweighs the benefits because they add little additional information
    • •correlated with closed-ended ones or provide no additional predictive information
    • Pros•open-ended responses to be more valuable than closed-ended ones•
    • Often skipped
  5. Question Format- Open ended problems
    • Question Wording
    • Complexity
    • Double- Barreled Questions
    • Valence
    • Respondent Demographics
    • Referent
  6. Ethics
    • Research ethics
    • A general category of how the moral rights and responsibilities will be managed throughout the project
    • Emotions-Will anyone be harmed psychologically, what sort of issues might the researcher and researched confront?
    • Politics- Who says how the research is conducted and what happens to the findings once published
    • Danger- Will the researchers or participants be placed in any physical or psychological danger as a result of the project?
  7. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
    • Required of research done at universities receiving federal funding
    • Formally designated to approve, monitor, and review research involving humans
    • Can approve, require modifications in planned research prior to approval, or disapprove research
    • Must complete a lengthy approval process
    • Must provide board with several pieces of information
    •   All questionnaires
    •   Recruitment language
    •   Debriefing forms
    •   Number of participants needed
  8. Sampling
    • Population- all of the elements we are interested in studying
    • Sample - subset of elements fromt the larger population
  9. Sampling
    • Single- stage sample
    •   sampling units are the same as the elements Multi- stage sample 
    •   multiple sampling units, but only one smapling unit may be the study's element
  10. Generalizability
    • 2 types
    •   sample generalizability- ability to generalize from a sample to the population the sample was taken from 
    •   cross- population- commonly referred to external validity
    •    ability to generalize form finding about one group, population, or setting to other groups, populations, or setting
    •      Ex: UNR students to All college students
  11. Sampling Methods
    • 2 types
    •   Probability Sampling- know in advance the likelihood of selectin any element of a population
    •   Probability of selection
    •      Ex: coin toss>>.50 probability
    • Random selection- every element of the population has a known and independent chance of being selected into sample
  12. Probability Sampling
    • Incomplete lists
    • Inadequate response rate
  13. Probability Sampling Methods
    • Simple Random Sampling
    •   Random digit dialing
    •   Replacement sampling 
    •   Sampling withou replacement
  14. Probability Sampling Methods
    • Systematic Random Sample
    •   Randomly select first element and then every nth element selected after
    •       3 steps
  15. Probability Sampling Methods
      Stratifies Random Samplin
    •  Infor known about population beforehand
    •    All elements in population distinguished according to some relevant characteristic
    •  Proportionate stratifies sampling- selecting participants based on proportion of size in the population 
    • Disproportionate stratifies sampling- selecting particpants regardless of proportion of size in the population
  16. Probability Sampling Methods
      Cluster Sampling
    • Naturally occurring aggregate of elements of the population
    •    2 stages
  17. Nonprobability Sampling Methods
    • Elements do not have know probability of being selected
    •   4 methods 
    •     Availability Sampling
    •     Quota Sampling 
    •     Purposive Sampling
    •     Snowballing Sampling
  18. Units and Levels of Analysis
    • Unit of analysis
    •   the thing being studied
    •     Typically people/individuals in criminal justice
    • Level of analysis•
    •    location, size, or scale of a research target
    •    typically “individual” versus “aggregate”
  19. Ecological Fallacy
    Making inferences about individuals based on aggregate level data
  20. Levels of Measurements
    • Ratio- interval with a  true zero
    • Interval- 0 to 10
    • Ordinal- rank order
    • Nominal- label
  21. Reliability
    • Whether particular measure will get the same results after being applied several times•
    • Reliability does not ensure accuracy
    • Reliability problems come up often
    •     Single observer
    •     Two observers
    •     Questions people don’t know answers to
    •     Questions that aren’t relevant
    • Checks on reliability•
    •  Test-Retest
    •  Interrater Reliability
    •  Split-Half
  22. Validity
    • Are you measuring what you say you are measuring?
    • Face validity
    •   Criterion-Related validity
    •   Construct validity
    •   Content validity
    • Multiple measures
    •  Using more than one measure to validate responses
    •  Example à survey asking people how many crimes they have committed
  23. Theory
    a set on interconnected statements or propositions that explain how two or more events or factors are related to one another
  24. Ideology
    • Has all the answers
    • Avoids tests
    • Blind to opposing evidence
    • Highly partial
    • Has contradictions
  25. Social Theory
    • Incomplete
    • Welcome tests
    • Changes based on evidence
    • Neutral
    • Seels logic
  26. Social Theory vs. Ideology
    • Similarities
    •   Assumption
    •   Explains the social world
    •   Offers a system of concepts/ ideas
    •   Specifies relationships among concepts
  27. Concepts
    Abstract ideas that are created to explain our reality
  28. Constructing a Research Design
    • 1. Idea Formulation- beginning state of research design
    • 2. Conceptualiztion- general to specific
    • 3. Operationalization- abstract concepts into "real world" measures
    • 4. Sample Selection- need to select a represetative group of the population
    • 5. Data Collection
    • 6. Data Analysis