HCI 2 (Human Capabilities: I/O)

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HCI 2 (Human Capabilities: I/O)
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2013-05-13 10:36:12
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human copmuter interaction hci science software
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edinburgh uni HCI exam preparation
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  1. State and explain Fitts Law
    • Use: predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area
  2. List the 4 Gestalt grouping principles and give examples.
  3. Name some perceptual constraints and other factors
    • cultural and learned factors
    • underlying domain knowledge of users
    • need to reflect on logical structure (placement and grouping according to function, sequency and frequency of use)
    • dependance on task to be carried out (getting overview vs. seek specific information)
  4. What are the types of memory?
    • STM / LTM
    • Declarative / Procedural
  5. MHP (might not be needed for exam)
    might not be needed
  6. List the limitations of LTM (long term memory)
    • not everything is stored (filtering process)
    • not everything stored can be retrieved (recall process)
    • not everything recalled is correct (interference process)
  7. Name and explain the two different kinds of declarative memory
    • episodic: knowledge of facts -what happened, where and when
    • semantic: factual information, general knowledge independent of context
  8. Explain procedural memory
    • how-to-do-it knowledge
    • Usually implicit, hard to put into words - hence non-declarative (e.g. how to ride a bike)
  9. Explain semantic nets
    • A semantic net models declarative memory, by organizing memory into a network with links expressing strength or type of relationship between nodes, may be hierarchical
  10. Describe schemas in the ddeclarative model
    Schemas: are pre-existing kowledge structures that shape our memomory of new inputs (may improve recall but also bias of memory)

    Frames: knowledge is organised into data structures with fixed, default and variable slots or attributes

    Scripts: stereotypical knowledge about situations that allows interpretation of partial description or causes (restaurant example)

    Note: Schemas may develop as abstractions of specific experiences (episodic memory) <-> Our memor might be shaped by specific expereriences
  11. How is procedural emory modeled?
    • Estimate complexity and completion time of task from number of production rules per task.cognitive load depends on how much working memory rules take up.
  12. LTM discussion
  13. Explain STM (short term memory, 3 points)
    • 1. Capacity: 7+-2 chunks of info
    • 2. Working memory: "Registers" of cognitive processor (data from perceptual subsystems, activated "chunks" of LTM)
    • 3. "Cognitive Load": of task is how much we have to keep in mind - attention bottleneck
  14. State ad explain two different learning equations (Power Law of Practice / Heathcote)
    • Heathcote (2000):
  15. Describe Markovs Decision Process
  16. Define Learnability and list the 5 subcriteria
    Learnability - the ease with which new users can begin effective interaction and achieve maximal performance

    • Predictability
    • Synthesizability
    • Familiarity
    • Generalizatbility
    • Consistency
  17. Predicability details
    • +support user to determine effect of future action based on past interaction history (beispiel textlupe)
  18. Synthesisability details
    • Synthesisability: support for the user to assess the effect of past operations on the current state.
    • Specifically, they can assess if the outcome is better or worse than expected (are they making progress towards the goal?)Immediate vs. eventual honesty

    • Advantage of WYSIWYG - What you see is what you get
    • Difficult learning situations involve long chains of states and actions before any reward is received
  19. Familiarity details
    • problem: agreement can be very low
  20. Affordance explanation

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