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State and explain Fitts Law
- Use: predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area
List the 4 Gestalt grouping principles and give examples.
Name some perceptual constraints and other factors
- cultural and learned factors
- underlying domain knowledge of users
- need to reflect on logical structure (placement and grouping according to function, sequency and frequency of use)
- dependance on task to be carried out (getting overview vs. seek specific information)
What are the types of memory?
- STM / LTM
- Declarative / Procedural
MHP (might not be needed for exam)
might not be needed
List the limitations of LTM (long term memory)
- not everything is stored (filtering process)
- not everything stored can be retrieved (recall process)
- not everything recalled is correct (interference process)
Name and explain the two different kinds of declarative memory
- episodic: knowledge of facts -what happened, where and when
- semantic: factual information, general knowledge independent of context
Explain procedural memory
- how-to-do-it knowledge
- Usually implicit, hard to put into words - hence non-declarative (e.g. how to ride a bike)
Explain semantic nets
- A semantic net models declarative memory, by organizing memory into a network with links expressing strength or type of relationship between nodes, may be hierarchical
Describe schemas in the ddeclarative model
Schemas: are pre-existing kowledge structures that shape our memomory of new inputs (may improve recall but also bias of memory)
Frames: knowledge is organised into data structures with fixed, default and variable slots or attributes
Scripts: stereotypical knowledge about situations that allows interpretation of partial description or causes (restaurant example)
Note: Schemas may develop as abstractions of specific experiences (episodic memory) <-> Our memor might be shaped by specific expereriences
How is procedural emory modeled?
- Estimate complexity and completion time of task from number of production rules per task.cognitive load depends on how much working memory rules take up.
Explain STM (short term memory, 3 points)
- 1. Capacity: 7+-2 chunks of info
- 2. Working memory: "Registers" of cognitive processor (data from perceptual subsystems, activated "chunks" of LTM)
- 3. "Cognitive Load": of task is how much we have to keep in mind - attention bottleneck
State ad explain two different learning equations (Power Law of Practice / Heathcote)
- Heathcote (2000):
Describe Markovs Decision Process
Define Learnability and list the 5 subcriteria
Learnability - the ease with which new users can begin effective interaction and achieve maximal performance
- +support user to determine effect of future action based on past interaction history (beispiel textlupe)
- Synthesisability: support for the user to assess the effect of past operations on the current state.
- Specifically, they can assess if the outcome is better or worse than expected (are they making progress towards the goal?)Immediate vs. eventual honesty
- Advantage of WYSIWYG - What you see is what you get
- Difficult learning situations involve long chains of states and actions before any reward is received
- problem: agreement can be very low