BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review

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BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review
2013-05-13 19:25:05
BIOL 404 Pulmonary Review

BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review
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  1. Inspiration is what type of process?
    Active process
  2. Expiration is what type of process?
    Passive process
  3. Muscles of Ventilation are:
    • External intercostals
    • Internal Intercostals
    • Abdominals
    • Diaphragm
    • Sternocleiomastoids
    • Scalenes
  4. When is intrapleural pressure the most negative?
    At the end of Inspiration
  5. Can intrapleural pressure ever be positive?
    • yes 
    • During forced expiration (cough)
    • (can be 0 or = aveolar pressure if the lungs collapse)
  6. Describe the Pressure cycling of the ventilitory cycle:
  7. When the lungs are at rest what is the interpleural pressure?
    At its highest of -3 Hg
  8. What is FRC?
    • Functional Residual Capacity
    • Lungs and chest held together at rest
  9. When is Intrapleural pressure the highest?
    Functional Residual Capacity = normal rest
  10. What is the increased intrapleural pressure at FRC caused by?
    • Result of opposing forces of the lung
    • Due to elasticity
  11. What is Tidal volume?
    • normal volume of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration w/o extra effort.
    • ~ 500 ml/inspiration OR 7 ml/kg BW
  12. What is Residual volume ?
    • the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
  13. What is Expiratory reserve volume?
    • the maximal volume of air that can be exhaled beyond normal expiration
  14. What is Inspiratory reserve volume?
    • The maximal volume that can be inhaled beyond normal inhalation
  15. What is Functional residual capacity?
    • the volume in the lungs at the end-expiratory position
  16. What is Vital capacity?
    • The volume equal to TLC − RV
  17. What is Inspiratory capacity?
    • The sum of IRV and TV
  18. Name two major pulmonary obstructive diseases:
    • Emphysema
    • Asthma
  19. What are the changes in lung capacity with Emphysema?
    • Chronic ↑FRC & RV
    • ↓Vital Capacity & Inspiritory Capacity
  20. What are the changes in lung capacity with Asthma?
    • Reversible ↑FRC & RV
    • ↓Vital Capacity & Inspiritory Capacity
  21. Name a Restrictive lung disease:
  22. What are the changes in lung capacity with Fibrosis?
    Chronic ↓ in all lung volumes & capacities
  23. What is COPD?
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  24. What is the equation for pulmonary compliance?
    Volume Δ/ Pressure Δ
  25. What 2 factors determine lung compliance?
    • Elastance
    • Surface tension
  26. What type of aveoli have greater pressure?
  27. What type of aveoli have less pressure?
  28. What is the law of LaPlace?
    • Air flows to larger aveoli first
  29. What is the Definition for resistance?
    Reduced airflow during inspiration and expiration.
  30. What is the Measurement for Resistance?
    • Oscillometry
    • Resistance =Δ P/V
  31. What is FVC?
    • Functional Vital Capacity=
    • Vital capacity from a maximally forced expiratory effort
  32. What is FEV?
    The volume of air exhaled under forced conditions
  33. What is FEV1/FVC?
    • Used for diagnosis of obstructive and restrictive lung disease
    • proportion of vital capacity that are able to expire in the first second of expiration
  34. List Endogenous Mediators of ventillation?
    • Contraction
    • Relaxation
  35. What happens as a result of hyperventilation to the oxygen content of the blood?
    Rise in O2, though somewhat plateaued
  36. What are the corresponding partial pressures for oxygen within the tissues?
    • Pulmonary incoming blood = 40
    • Lumen of Alveolus = 100
  37. What are the corresponding partial pressures for Carbon Dioxide within the tissues?
    • Peripheral tissues = 46
    • Systemic capillary = 40
    • Pulmonary Capillary = 45
    • Lumen of Alveolus = 40
  38. Name 3 major agents in the blood that affect ventilation:
    CO2, H+ & O2
  39. Where are the receptors that sense the blood content of CO2, O2 and H+ located?
    • Central
    • Peripheral chemoreceptors
  40. Which of receptors that sense the blood content of CO2, H+ & O2 are normally dominant?
    Central receptors
  41. What are the two major things that the lungs provide?
    • Increased surface area
    • Low diffusion distance