evo final

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kindlyunspoken09
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evo final
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2013-05-13 20:36:16
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  1. it is the change across generation in proportion to individuals who differ genetically in traits within a population which leads to new entities possessing different state of one or more characteristics.
    evolution
  2. what the scientific method consists of
    • making an observation
    • making an assertion or hypothesis
    • doing an experiment
  3. why is knowledge important scientifically, socially, and from a practical point of view?
    • 1. it is a unifying theme of all biology
    • 2. misguided information about evolution can be used to defend social inequality, racism, and to attack the scientific method.
    • 3. it has practical uses such as medicine, climate change and pest control.
  4. why is evolution a fact?
    because of all the facts that demonstrate how evolution has happened.
  5. why is evolution considered a theory
    there are a collection of tests and supported hypotheses to explain the facts.
  6. what four lines of evidence did darwin use to develop the idea of evolution by natural selection
    • 1. biogeographical
    • 2. fossils
    • 3. population biology
    • 4. artificial selection
  7. what five lines of evidence based on historical biogeography
    • 1. the islands are similar but different
    • 2. the islands are similar to but different than the mainland.
    • 3. the islands are young
    • 4. different forms on different islands
    • 5. all thought the islands have similar geological histories and environments the fauna is different
  8. beleived offspring inherited phenotype from the parents
    lamarck
  9. suggested the processes that build land forms take eons of time
    hutton
  10. wrote the principles of geology
    lyell
  11. observed that sooner or later population gets checked by famine
    malthus
  12. wrote fundamental theorem of evolution
    fisher
  13. had malaria
    wallace
  14. we are sitting in a cave with the fire to our backs
    plato
  15. said, nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution
    dobzhansky
  16. discovered the moons of jupiter
    galileo
  17. scopes trial?
    a biology teacher taught evolution in the classroom
  18. modern synthesis?
    it was incorporating genetic mechanisms of inheritance into evolution principles
  19. the process by which the genetic code of a gene is used to direct protein synthesis
    genetic expression
  20. what two processes result in same gendered siblings looking differently than each other
    • recombination/crossing over
    • independent assortment of alleles
  21. a type of dominance where the dominant gene completely masks the effect of the recessive allele
    complete dominance
  22. the condition of a heterozygote having a phenotype that is more pronounced or better adapted than that of either homozygote
    overdominance
  23. when a single gene has more than one dominant allele
    codominance
  24. the interaction between two or more genes to control a single phenotype
    epistasis
  25. the phenotype depends on alleles in multiple genes
    polygenic trait
  26. when one gene influences multiple phenotypic traits
    pleiotropy
  27. two or more discreet forms within a population
    polymorphisms
  28. predictable variation in phenotype along a geographic or ecological gradient
    cline
  29. marked variation in the phenotype due to the environment only
    phenotypic plasticity
  30. rate of evolution by natural selection in a trait is positively dependent on amount of genetic variation underlying the trait
    fisher's fundamental theorem
  31. the fraction of the total variation that is due to the additive effects of genes
    heritability
  32. rule: colder climate= shorter
    warmer climate = longer
    allen's rule
  33. the higher the elevation the shorter the plant
    common garden experiment
  34. how many genes for tunnel length
    3
  35. how many genes for escape tunnel
    1
  36. two main types of mutations
    • chromosomal
    •      amounts
    •      rearrangements
    • gene identity
    •      substitution
    •      frameshift
    •      transposition
  37. type of substition
    pur for pur
    trnasition
  38. type of substition
    pur for pyr
    transversion
  39. 2 unreduced gametes from the same parent
    autopolyploidy
  40. fusion of unreduced gametes from different parents
    allopolyploidy
  41. two conditions for natural selection
    • 1. variation in a trait
    • 2. magnitude of a trait provides some survival
  42. according to fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection the rate of evolution depends on
    h^2
  43. types of chromosomal mutations
    • aneuploidy
    • allopolyploidy
    • autopolypoloidy
  44. what type of selection was in the golden rod stem galler
    stabilizing
  45. one reason HIV is so successful
    its reverse transcriptase is so successful
  46. who proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution
    darwin and wallace
  47. the number of offspring an individual has relative to others in the population
    relative fitness
  48. different forms of the same gene
    alleles
  49. thomas jefferson and what extinct aniumal
    giant ground sloth
  50. wallace's line is likely due to
    a deep underseas channel
  51. when dinosaur tracks were first discovered they were thought to have been made by
    ancient birds
  52. recent chinese fossils demonstrate
    the closest living relatives of modern birds are crocodilians
  53. he proposed the sarawak law
    wallace
  54. what is HBs
    allele that codes for sickle cell
  55. the event that produced the current pattern of genetic diversity in missouri collard lizard
    population bottleneck
  56. ultimate source of genetic variation in natural populations
    mutation
  57. in the ice fish an antifreeze gene has arisen through
    gene duplication
  58. one problem not associated with trying to discern adaptations
    estimating heritability of the trait under consideration
  59. to predict the change in frquency of an allele under selection on must not know
    whether it is fast or slow
  60. genetic variation can be high in the face of strong selection under conditions of
    heterzygote advantage
  61. example of genetic drift
    bottleneck
  62. selective force leading to reduced gene flow in palm species
    different soil type
  63. instant speciation can occur in plants as a result of
    hybridization and polyploidization
  64. process that leads to gene family production
    unequal crossing over
  65. states that both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant
    hardy weinberg
  66. four requirements necessary for hardy wein berg
    • infinite population
    • random mating
    • no selection
    • no new alleles
  67. 1-s = w
    • s = selection coefficient
    • w = fitness
  68. genetic diversity in collard lizard populations have been most strongly influenced by which force
    genetic drift
  69. what caused genetic drift in collard lizards
    population bottleneck
  70. one problem not associated with trying to discern adaptation is
    estimating heritability of the trait under construction
  71. in the scale eating fish
    fitness is negatively correlated with abundance
  72. contribution of motoo
    theory of molecular evolution
  73. process by which hemoglobin has evolved
    gene duplication
  74. what is the most important process by which biochemical pathways have evolved
    gene duplication
  75. multiple copies of the same gene
    gene families
  76. for which kind of gene is evolution the highest
    pseudogene
  77. differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons
    codon bias
  78. process by which a new species is formed
    speciation
  79. species are groups of actual or potential interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated
    biological species concept
  80. groups of populations that share general morphological and ecological traits
    taxonomic species concept
  81. six problems  of the species concepts
    • 1. morphology and interbreeding do not match
    • 2. evolution is continuously happening
    • 3. allopatric populations
    • 4. ring species
    • 5.asexual species
    • 6.extinct forms
  82. chain of interbreeding races or subspecies the ends of which overlap but do not interbreed
    ring species
  83. the inability to breed successfully due to things like geographical differences
    reproductive isolation
  84. three stages of speciation
    • isolation
    • divergence
    • re-inforcement
  85. event that splits a species distribution into two or more isolated ranges and prevents gene flow
    vicariance event
  86. reversion to previous evolutionary states
    atavisms

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