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What is the pelagic zone?
Any water in the sea that is not close to the bottom or near to the shore is in the pelagic zone.
What is the benthic zone?
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake
What is the photic zone?
Part of the ocean exposed to significant sunlight, allows for photosynthesis.
What is the apothic zone?
Part of the ocean with little to no sunlight
How do fish maintain neutral buoyancy?
The swim bladder in a fish allows the fish to control how much air is in it's body.
Some marine organisms have spines, ruffles, and/or feathery appendages. How do these features help the organism stay in the photic zone?
It helps them increase surface area and therefore increase boyancy
How do fish maintain a constant body tissue salinity?
Through osmosis: Fresh water moves from a high concentration outside the fish to a low concentration outside the fish. Body oozes fresh water. About 18 parts per thousand excretes salt through gills, water loss through osmosis and urine.
What are the two main barriers to marine life?
Temperature, density, salinity and light isolate species and population. Resource partitioning.
Horizontal barriers, converging and diverging barriers. Where fresh and salt water meet. One type of water moving through an adjacent to another type of water
What is the difference between phyto plankton and zoo plankton?
Phyto plankton (microscopic algae) is a primary producer that require light, CO2, and nitrogen, phosphorous, and silicon. Mainly single celled. They have chlorophyll a pigment in the skin to trap sunlight for use in photosynthesis. Zoo plankton are microscopic animal plankton that eat photo plankton.
Explain diagram (arctic seas, temperate seas, tropical seas)
There are 2 things that control primary production, temperature and nutrients. There is sunlight only in the Arctic ocean during the summer, so that's the only time there are producers. In the temperate sea there is an overturning water column, and primary production changes. The last one there's sunlight all the time but have little nutrients, therefore a low biomass.
The supply of nutrients is controlled by upwelling, surface turnovers, and rivers. Be able to explain each one (what controls the distribution of global primary production).
Rivers pick up a lot of nutrients and in the coastal zones, waves keep them churned up, creating estuaries.
What are decomposes and why are they important?
They are bacteria that break down organic organisms and turn them into nutrients. They are important because they create said nutrients. They also release energy in dead organisms tissue. Breaks it down to CO2, nutrients, and H2O. They are recyclers as little as added to our planet from space.
Why are estuaries so productive?
Because rivers deposit nutrients in them and waves keep it churned up. Detritus organic liter is dumped into them through rivers, some detritus is also exported to the coastal zone, adding to it's primary production.
What are some trends in the links in the food web?
Primary producers form the first link -> connects plant and animal life -> animals are consumers that feed on pp or other consumers. Species may change their level in the food web (start out as a primary consumer then become a predator when it reaches adult hood).
Trophic levels represent links in the food web, low tropic level=large population, small body size, large biomass
Higher trophic level = smaller population, large body size, smaller biomass, just not enough food/resources fro 50 million whales
Energy is lost when it is transferred up to higher trophic levels. Where does it go?
It takes a lot of energy to keep up metabolic needs in your body (breathing, etc) therefore energy is lost every level you go up.
What are the primary producers in a chemosynthetic community?
Bacteria around from the black smokers create energy from heat, not light, and become the pp. They are called chemosynthetic microbes.
Why does chemosynthesis require no light?
Because it takes it's energy from the heat and nutrients of black smokers or bacteria using methane as energy in colder areas?
What are phyto plankton?
PP that survive off light and nutrients
Mainly unicellular algae
Each cell is an independent photosynth individual
Diatoms: individual form/chain form
What is the most important primary producer?
- -2 forms: round and elongate
- -round float better, true plankton
- -elongate do not float well
How do diatoms absorb nutrients?
Nutrients absorbed by plants across a semi-permeable membrane, this is how they expel waste as well
- Triangles are nutrients
- Circles are waste
Why can dinoflagulates survive at deeper depths?
Single celled plants with 2 whip like tails, green or red in color
They can survive deeper because they can both photosynthesis or ingest organic matter like an animal
What are copepods? What type of animal are they? Why are they important? Are they primary or secondary consumers?
Primary consumers; they eat pp and are the link between pp and animals. They are eaten by secondary consumers. (zooplankton, they are zooplankton) (shrimp-like)
Eat diatoms, filter feed.
What are meroplankton?
Only spend part of their life as zoo plankton
Larval fish, sea cucumber, larvel barnicles, anchovy egg
In addition to copepods, what other type of zoo plankton are there?
Foramnifora, cocolithoforids, pteropods, comb jelly, chindaria (jellyfish).
What type of animal are Nekton?
active swimmers, this includes: marine fish, reptiles, mammals birds, and others, as well as vertebrates and invertebrates
over 5,000 species
What are the 2 types of whale?
- 1. Balene whales (filter feed) (basking shark)
- 2. Tooth Whales (active predators) (killer whales)
What makes some fish better swimmers than others?
Ability to overcome drag (dynamically designed)
-aspect ratio: how quickly the fish can move it's fins and the shape of the fin
-speed dependent on: body length, beat frequency, and aspect ratio
-strong correlation between predation and mode of locomotion
How do sharks differ from bony fish?
Sharks have a skeleton made of cartilage, bony fish have bones (obviously).
-Sharks have dentin covered scales (dermal teeth)
Name a few features that make sharks great predators?
- -teeth are modified scales
- -Teeth are replaced if lost
- -Great senses
- -Receptors on their sides can detect currents from injured/distressed prey
- -Can detect change in water chemistry as 1 part per billion
- -Over 300 species
Over time, how has the sea snake's tail been modified for life in the ocean?
It has flattened out to let them swim better, really, it's whole body has.
What are the 2 ways sea week can reproduce?
Not by flowers and seeds, either sexually or asexually (fragmentation pieces come off and they both rebuild parts and are now two)
Define and give an example of epifauna:
live at the bottom of the ocean
-on, or attached to, the surface area or firm sediment
Define and give an example of infauna:
Live within the bottom sediments
Clams, worms, shrimp, some gastropods
-none along the rocky shores
Define and give an example of sessile animals:
Attached to the sea floor as adults
-barnacles, sea anemones, oysters, coral
- -prevents overcrowding
- -meroplankton (common)
Define and give an example of motile animals:
Actively move around throughout their lives
The position of a plant or animal on the sea floor is governed by what?
By the animal's ability to cope with environmental changes
(change in the temperature, salinity, exposure to air, 02 content, turbulence) these are less variable the deeper you go down
Are sessile animals always sessile? Explain
No, they begin their lives as zoo plankton, then become sessile and unmoving as they get older.
Explain coral bleaching. Be detailed.
Caused by stress, it makes it turn white, healthy coral is usually brown because it expels it's zooxanthellae
stressors: high light or UV inflation, low salinity and high turbidity from coastal runoff (heavy rainfall, change in temperature (only one or two degrees Celcious change) very low tides
Explain squiggly diagram, overturn...
Late winter has an overturn and the phyto plankton are high. When there is a stable water column there is lot of light but not nutrients, therefore less producers. Basically the same thing
How do photosynthesiers absorb nutrients?
All nutrients pass through the cellular membrane
Why does the color of seaweed change with depth?
Based on light, at different depths there are different pigments of light and the different colors allow for better light absorbtion
Why is it that sea turtles travel a great distance to their nesting areas?
To put a considerable distance between feeding areas and their nesting beaches
How does see weed differ from land plants?
It does not have roots and does not absorb nutrients and water from them. Blades are different as well, they do not have veins and do not need structural support. Some sea weed has a calcium carbonate covering.
Do predator fish have a low or high caudal fin aspect ratio?
High aspect ratio
Why is the body of a dolphin similar to that of a tuna?
They both have football shaped bodies with caudal fins with high aspect ratios that make them great swimmers with low drag
A few times this semester I have mentioned "resource partitioning". Why is this? Why is it important?
Different nutrients in different areas reduces overcrowding
-birds/animals in the same environment that eat different food so everyone doesn't use it all up too quickly