BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 2

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  1. What is the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S. and 6th in the world?
  2. What processes are respiration accomplished by?
    • Pulmonary ventilation
    • Diffusion of Gases
    • Transport of Gases
    • Regulation
  3. What embryonic tissue does the Lung develop from?
    The embryonic gut
  4. How does the lung grow?
    In a series of paired branches
  5. How many generations of branching occur in lung growth?
  6. How many aveoli are in the lung?
    300 million
  7. What is the approximate surface area of the lung?
    the size of a tennis court
  8. Where is there no gas exchange in the lungs?
    Trachea and Bronchi
  9. What is the conducting zone?
    The Trachea and Bronchi
  10. Where in the lung do aveoli increase in number?
    Generations 17-23
  11. What is the respiratory zone?
    The aveoli
  12. What part of ventilation is active and requires energy?
  13. What muscles are needed for Inspiration?
    • Diaphragm
    • External Intercostals
  14. What is Dyspnea?
    Difficult or labored breathing.
  15. What ventilation step is passive?
  16. What do the Internal intercostals in ventilation?
    Close the ribs and facilitate forced exhalation
  17. What do the External intercostals do in ventilation?
    Draw the ribs up and outward
  18. What does the Diaphragm do during inspiration?
    Contracts and pulls the lung downward
  19. If Expiration is passive, where does the potential energy come from?
    Elastic recoil of the lung and surface tension created during inhalation
  20. What muscles contract during Forced expiration?
    • Abdominals
    • Internal intercostals
  21. What keeps lungs from collapsing after every breath?
    The negative pressure surrounding the lungs in the interapleural space
  22. What happens to intrapleural pressure during inspiration?
  23. What happens to intrapleural pressure during expiration?
    It increases
  24. What is pneumothorax?
    The presence of air or gas in the cavity between the lungs and the chest wall, causing collapse of the lung.
  25. How many lung volumes are there?
  26. How many capacities are there for the lung?
  27. Ventilation capacity + residual volume = ?
  28. What is VC in layman's terms?
    Maximal ventilation
  29. Tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume = ?
    Inspiratory capacity
  30. Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume = ?
    Functional Residual Capacity
  31. What is Alveolar Ventilation?
    VA = VT -VD
  32. What is dead air space?
    Conducting zone of the lungs
  33. Changes in intrapleural pressure induce what?
    Air flow
  34. How can the lungs have such a large surface area?
  35. What lung capacities can be measured by a spirometer?
    • Vital Capacity
    • Tidal Volume
    • Breathing rate
    • Ventilation Rate
  36. Which of the 4 volumes cannot be measured by a spirometer?
    All that have Residual volume
  37. At what point does a passive expiration end?
  38. What muscles increase the circumference of the chest?
    External Intercostals
  39. During which condition does the lungs expel at least some of its residual volume?
    During a pneumothorax
  40. Normally what is the intrapleural pressure at resting FRC?
    –3 to –5 cm water
  41. Alveolar ventilation is what?
    tidal volume minus the air in conducting zone
Card Set:
BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 2
2013-05-13 19:01:58
BIOL 404 Pulmonary Review

BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 2
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