BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 3
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What are the Major factors affecting pulmonary mechanics?
- compliance of the lungs & chest wall
- resistance of the conducting airways.
Compliance of the respiratory system is a function of what?
- elastic recoil
- does not involve airflow.
Resistance of the respiratory system is a function of what?
frictional forces of airflow
What is the equation for compliance?
DV/ D P
What are the Units for Compliance?
What factors effect lung compliance?
- Tissue elasticity
- Surface tension (largely responsible)
Lung elasticity decreases with what?
What type of compliance is seen with Emphysema?
What type of compliance is seen with Fibrosis?
What is surface tension?
Attraction of H20 molecules at the water air interface to reduce surface area
Surface tension can facilitate what pathology in the aveoli?
Why do lungs have surface tension?
They are 80% water and have a water air interface
Under what conditions do lungs filled with air have no surface tension?
Lungs filled with water
Do lungs filled with water have the same recoil as those filled with air?
What is Hysteresis?
Dependency of a past conditions as well as current
What is the critical opening pressure?
Pressure to reopen closed alveoli
When are surfactants less concentrated on the alveoli surface?
During inspiration (lung expansion)
When are surfactants More concentrated on the alveoli surface?
During expiration (lung relaxation)
Pressure in the Law of LaPlace is directly proportional to what?
Pressure in the Law of LaPlace is inversely proportional to what?
Radius of Alveoli
What is the pulmonary surfactant?
What is Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine?
What is the action of Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine?
Lowers surface tension
Where is Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine produced?
Type II cells of the lung (lamellar bodies)
How is Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine oriented on the surface of the alveoli?
- Choline head towards water
- Palmitic acid tails toward the air
What clears surfactants from the alveoli?
What happens to surfactants after being removed from the alveoli surface?
- Removed, reconditioned and re-used by Type II cells
- Phagocytosis oby macrophages
- Lost as carried up airways
Surface tension in the lung is dependent on what?
- Expiration or inspiration
What is Respiratory distress syndrome?
- Premature newborn W/ immature Alveolar type II
- Low functioning surfactants
- High alveolar surface tension
What is the Treatment for Respiratory distress syndrome?
What is Hyaline membrane disease?
Respiratory distress syndrome
Compliance is what?
The ease at which the lungs expands
What effects compliance?
- Surface tension
What do Surfactants do?
↓ surface tension
Abnormal or ↓ surfactants causes what?
What is IRDS?
Infant respiratory distress syndrome
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