BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 3

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Author:
kyleannkelsey
ID:
219427
Filename:
BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 3
Updated:
2013-05-13 15:47:13
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BIOL 404 Pulmonary Review
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BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 3
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  1. What are the Major factors affecting pulmonary mechanics?
    • compliance of the lungs & chest wall
    • resistance of the conducting airways.
  2. Compliance of the respiratory system is a function of what?
    • elastic recoil
    • does not involve airflow.
  3. Resistance of the respiratory system is a function of what?
    frictional forces of airflow
  4. What is the equation for compliance?
    DV/ D P
  5. What are the Units for Compliance?
    L/cm H2O
  6. What factors effect lung compliance?
    • Tissue elasticity
    • Surface tension (largely responsible)
  7. Lung elasticity decreases with what?
    Age
  8. What type of compliance is seen with Emphysema?
    Increased compliance
  9. What type of compliance is seen with Fibrosis?
    Decreased compliance
  10. What is surface tension?
    Attraction of H20 molecules at the water air interface to reduce surface area
  11. Surface tension can facilitate what pathology in the aveoli?
    Collapse
  12. Why do lungs have surface tension?
    They are 80% water and have a water air interface
  13. Under what conditions do lungs filled with air have no surface tension?
    Lungs filled with water
  14. Do lungs filled with water have the same recoil as those filled with air?
    Yes
  15. What is Hysteresis?
    Dependency of a past conditions as well as current
  16. What is the critical opening pressure?
    Pressure to reopen closed alveoli
  17. When are surfactants less concentrated on the alveoli surface?
    During inspiration (lung expansion)
  18. When are surfactants More concentrated on the alveoli surface?
    During expiration (lung relaxation)
  19. Pressure in the Law of LaPlace is directly proportional to what?
    Tension
  20. Pressure in the Law of LaPlace is inversely proportional to what?
    Radius of Alveoli
  21. What is the pulmonary surfactant?
    Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine
  22. What is Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine?
    Pulmonary surfactant
  23. What is the action of Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine?
    Lowers surface tension
  24. Where is Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine produced?
    Type II cells of the lung (lamellar bodies)
  25. How is Dipalmitoyl Phosphotidylcholine oriented on the surface of the alveoli?
    • Choline head towards water
    • Palmitic acid tails toward the air
  26. What clears surfactants from the alveoli?
    Macrophages
  27. What happens to surfactants after being removed from the alveoli surface?
    • Removed, reconditioned and re-used by Type II cells
    • Phagocytosis oby macrophages
    • Lost as carried up airways
  28. Surface tension in the lung is dependent on what?
    • Expiration or inspiration
    • Hysteresis
  29. What is Respiratory distress syndrome?
    • Premature newborn W/ immature Alveolar type II
    • Low functioning surfactants
    • High alveolar surface tension
    • Acidosis
  30. What is the Treatment for Respiratory distress syndrome?
    • GC
    • exogenous surfactants
  31. What is Hyaline membrane disease?
    Respiratory distress syndrome
  32. Compliance is what?
    The ease at which the lungs expands
  33. What effects compliance?
    • Surface tension
    • Elasticity
  34. What do Surfactants do?
    ↓ surface tension
  35. Abnormal or ↓ surfactants causes what?
    Lung collapse
  36. What is IRDS?
    Infant respiratory distress syndrome

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