BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 4
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Pulmonary mechanics is determined largely by what?
pulmonary compliance & airway resistance
Compliance is a static or dynamic measurement?
Airway resistance as we will see has a factor of what?
Therefore pulmonary resistance is a static or dynamic measurement of lung function?
Airway Resistance (Raw) is what?
Raw = Δ pressure/flow
What are the factors of Airway compliance?
- Air velocity
- Airway radius
- Air turbulence
Why does RAW usually ↑ in upper rather lower airways?
- Combined airways XS area ↑ from trachea to alveoli.
- Since XS area ↑ as air flows into the lungs, air velocity must ↓.
- Therefore airway resistance normally ↓ from trachea down to alveolus
Resistance is a problem of what part of the lung?
Why is resistance a problem of the upper lung and not the lower lung?
Because cross-sectional area increases from the upper lung to lower lung
What is MMFR?
- Mid-maximal flow rate
- = FEF 25%-50%
What is FEV1/FVC in patients with obstructive lung disease?
What is FEV1/FVC in patients with restrictive lung disease?
A↓ in FEV1 & FVC would indicate what?
Restrictive OR obstructive lung disease
What is the main nerve controlling smooth muscle of the airway?
What are the types of receptors on teh airway smooth muscle
- Small amounts of alpha1
Are there sympathetic nerves tha innervate pulmonary smooth muscles?
How do sympathetic nerves effect the smooth muscles of the airway?
The y innervate PNS and decrease the amount of Ach released causing relaxation
What are the B2 receptors of the airway smooth muscles activated by?
- Norepinephrine through the circulation
Activated B2 receptors on airway smooth muscles cause what?
- Fight or flight response
- Relaxation of airways
How does the PNS innervate the airway smooth muscles?
Via vagus nerve
What type of neurotransmitter is released by the PNS on the smooth muscle of the airways?
Ach acts on M3
What is the Non-adrenergic Non-cholinergic (NANC) pathway?
- Excitatory and inhibitory innervation of the airway smooth muscle
- Releases Vasoactive intestinal peptide AND Nitric Oxide
What does NANC VIP do?
Relax smooth muscle
What NO in NANC do?
Relaxes airway smooth muscle
What does NANC VIP bind to?
What does NO in NANC bind to?
Nothing, diffuses through the membrane
What is the inhibitory action of NANC?
Afferent neuron that signals the CNS increase PNS tone
What is the end result of NO release in the airways?
- relaxed smooth muscle of the airways
- Decreased Ach release
What are the Determinants of RAW (airway resistance)?
What innervations control Airway resistance?
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