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  1. habeas corpus
    • "produce the body"
    • requires government officials to present a prisoner in court and to explain to the judge why the person is being held
  2. ex post facto laws
    • "after the fact"
    • charged for committing a crime that wasn't a crime when the person committed the action
  3. bills of attainder
    punishes an individual without judicial trial
  4. 14th amendment
    • "privileges and immunities"- constitution protects all citizens
    • due process- prohibits abuse of life, liberty, or property of any citizen, state rights were subordinate to Fed rights
    • equal protection clause- constitution applies to all citizens equally
  5. Judicial Review
    • marbury v madison
    • the power of the supreme court to judge the constitutionality of a law
  6. legislative action
    • civil rights act of 1964
    • sometimes laws can guarantee rights
  7. establishment clause
    prohibits gov from establishing an official church
  8. free exercise clause
    allows people to worship as they please
  9. Restrictions to free speech
    • threat to national security
    • libel- false written statement attacking one's character with intent to harm
    • obscenity
    • symbolic speech- action to convey a message
  10. Cases involving right to privacy
    • griswold v connecticut
    • roe v wade
  11. due process
    • 5th and 14th amendment
    • forbids national and state gov to "deny any person life, liberty, or property without due process of law"
    • procedural- fair trial
    • substantive- fundamental fairness
  12. search and seizure
    • 4th amendment
    • freedom from unreasonable search and seizure
    • prevent police abuse
    • mapp v ohio
  13. self incrimination
    • 5th amendment
    • no one "shall be compelled to be a witness against himself"
    • miranda v arizona
  14. federalism
    • two or more governments exercise power and authority over the same people in the same territory
    • relationship between federal and state governments
  15. federalist #51
    • defends the constitution
    • explains why a strong gov is necessary
    • defends separation of powers between state and national gov
  16. delegated (enumerated) powers
    powers given to fed gov by constitution
  17. reserved powers
    state power alone
  18. concurrent powers
  19. prohibited powers
    denied from both
  20. elastic clause
    • "necessary and proper clause"
    • congress has power to make necessary laws
    • because it is impossible to predict all the powers congress will need
  21. mcculloch v maryland
    • bank of US in maryland, maryland didnt want the competition, maryland taxed the bank to put it out of business, mcculloch, BoUS employee, refused to pay state tax
    • declared a bank of the US constitutional
    • state cannot tax federal gov
  22. commerce clause
    • regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and wish the indian tribes
    • stretched with elastic clause
  23. commerce
    buying and selling of goods and services
  24. gibbons v ogden
    • steamboat case
    • nation overruled state in interstate trade issues
  25. Gonzalez v raich
    federal government can trump state laws permitting medicinal marijuana
  26. dual federalism
    • layer cake
    • federal and state governments remain dominant in their separate spheres of influence
  27. cooperative federalism
    • marble cake
    • state and federal governments work together to solve complex problems
  28. fiscal
  29. grants-in-aid
    money paid from one level of gov to another to be spent for a specific surpose
  30. categorical grants
    • target specific purposes and "strings attached"
    • ie- state receive funds if they raised age to 31 and lower BAC to .08
  31. mandates
    requirement that a state undertake an activity or proved a service
  32. devolution
    return of power to the state gov
  33. reasons federalism is good
    • built on compromise, promotes unity
    • gov duties can be split up
    • brings gov closer to people
    • allows state gov to address issues in unique regions of the country
    • allows states to experiment with policy
  34. reasons federalism is bad
    • states can impede progress of nation
    • states are unequal
    • states have different policy
    • easier for states to be dominated by interest group
  35. suffrage
    right to vote
  36. women's suffrage
    19th amendement
  37. 18-21 year olds suffrage
    26th amendment
  38. reasons for low voter turnout
    • absentee voting
    • high number of offices to elect
    • weekend/non holiday voting
  39. political socialization
    factors that influence a person's opinion
  40. political ideology
    coherent set of values and beliefs about public policy
  41. exit polls
    polling after voting
  42. FCC (federal communications commission)
    • controls the media
    • no one may operate radio/tv stations without their license
  43. white house press corp
    journalists whose sole job is to follow the president
  44. white house press secretary
    responsibly for addressing the press daily and answer questions for the president
  45. machiavelli
    • synonymous with tough and dirty politics
    • "the ends justify the means"
    • "it is better to be feared than loved"
  46. a neutral view of politics (Harold D Lasswell)
    who gets what, when, and how (and where)
  47. Social contract theory
    • "the only valid government is one based on the consent of the governed" (Locke)
    • rulers and citizens enter into an agreement, or a social contract
  48. power
    ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance
  49. authority
    right to use power
  50. legitimacy
    what makes the law or leader a source of "right"
  51. principles necessary for a democracy to exist
    • 1. universal suffrage (everyone can vote)
    • 2. political equality (all votes counted equally)
    • 3. majority rule
    • 4. gov responds to public opinion
  52. direct democracy
    citizens create/vote on laws
  53. representative democracy (republic)
    • citizens elect reps
    • gov mediates popular views
  54. Majoritarian theory
    leaders are forced to follow the wishes of the people because majority rules
  55. pluralist theory
    • groups compete and compromise with each other to get the gov to do what they want
    • must COMPROMiSE
    • most popular theory today
  56. elite (Marxist) theory
    groups or people who possess the most power (money or influence) dominate gov
  57. bureaucratic theory
    appointed officials dominate the gov through unelected jobs
  58. national convention
    meets every 4 years, nominates president
  59. national committee
    manages party affairs on daily basis
  60. congressional campaign committee
    supports party's candidates
  61. national chair
    manages daily work
  62. 4 functions of parties
    • 1. connect citizens to gov (linkage institution)
    • 2. run candidates for political office
    • 3. inform the public- help voters decide who to vote for in elections
    • 4. organizing government- coordinate gov policy-making
  63. grass roots
    parties can reach out to voters personally and "get out the vote" on a local level
  64. dealignment
    weak membership, more independents or moderates
  65. strait ticket voting
    • strong party membership
    • support all candidates for one party
  66. ticket splitting
    voting for candidates from multiple parties
  67. winner-take-all
    • the person with the most votes wins
    • dont need over 50%
  68. unitary system
    • british colonial rule
    • all power flows from one central gov
  69. confederate system
    • articles of confederation
    • power concentrated in political subunits (states) with a weak central gov (typically unite for a common goal)
  70. federal system
    • constitution
    • powers are divided and/or shared between state and central governments
    • current gov designed by framers
  71. articles of confederation
    • weak central gov
    • no central law
    • no control of taxation, commerce between states or with foreign nations, money system
    • no executive
    • individual and state liberties not threatened
    • unicameral congress with one vote per state
    • gov has no control
  72. constitutional convention
    • revise the articles of confederation
    • Virginia plan & new jersey plan
  73. virginia plan
    • favored large states
    • strong central gov
    • bicameral legislature
  74. new jersey plan
    • strong central gov
    • unicameral congress
    • states have equal votes
  75. great compromise
    • bicameral legislature
    • senate- 2 members from each state
  76. three-fifths compromise
    allow the south to count 3/5 the population in each state to balance the power of north and south
  77. popular socereignty
    • power to govern belongs to the people
    • gov based on the consent of the governed
  78. separation of powers
    division of gov between branches: executive, judicial, legislative
  79. checks and balances
    branches have some authority over the others
  80. limited government
    • gov is not all-powerful
    • only does what citizens allow
  81. federalism
    division of power between central gov and individual states
  82. legislature
    • passes law
    • congress
  83. executive
    • enforces law
    • president
  84. judiciary
    • interprets law
    • supreme court
  85. amending the consitution
    amendment proposed by 2/3 vote in each house of congress and ratified in at least 3/4 of state legislatures
  86. federalist v anti-federalist
    • federalist- in favor of adoption of US constitution creating a federal union and strong central gov
    • anti-federalist- opposed to ratification in 1787, opposed to strong central gov
  87. interest groups
    • want to pass policy but dont run their own candidates for office
    • can access/influence many points and levels of gov
  88. linkage institution
    • links people and gov
    • gives voice to the people
  89. economic interest group
    labor unions, agricultural, business, profesisonal
  90. consumer interest group
    public interest, environmental
  91. equality and justice interest groups
    racial issues, gender issues, minority issues
  92. lobby (buttonholing)
    • influence gov policy
    • call/email officials, meet and socialize, go to lunch, testify at committee hearings, ask for political favors
  93. litigation
    favorable lawmaking
  94. congress
    • strongest branch
    • separation of lawmaking power from executive
    • bicameralism balances large & small states
  95. House
    • 435 members
    • 2 year term
    • 7 year citizen
    • initiate impeachment
    • revenue bills
    • strict debate rules
  96. senate
    • 100 members
    • 6 year term
    • 9 year citizen
    • tries impeachment
    • approve presidential appointments
    • approve treaties
    • loose debate rules
  97. oversight of budget
    congress can restrict the fed budget prepared by the executive branch
  98. appropriations
    congress makes set amount of money available for various activity in a fiscal year
  99. house leadership
    • 1. speaker of the house
    • 2. majority leader
    • 3. majority whip
  100. senate leadership
    • 1. pres of the senate (vice president)
    • 2. pres pro tempore
    • 3. majority leader (most powerful)
    • 4. majority whip
  101. house- speaker of the house
    • allows people to speak on the floor
    • assigns bills to committees
    • influences which bills are brought to a vote
    • appoints members of special and select committees
  102. senate- majority leader
    • schedules senate business
    • prioritizes bills
  103. malapportionment
    unequal population in districts
  104. gerrymandering
    redrawing district boundaries in strange ways to make it easy for candidate of one party to win
  105. 5 steps to make a bill a law
    • 1. introduce bill
    • 2. committee
    • 3. rules committee
    • 4. floor debate
    • 5. voting
  106. pocket veto
    • president has 10 days to act on a piece of legislation
    • if he receives the bill within 10 days of the end of the congressional session, and doesnt sign it, it dies
  107. committees and subcommittees
    where bills are passed, changed, ignored, or killed
  108. standing committee
    • handle bills in different policy areas
    • most important
    • have been "standing" (existing) for a long time
  109. select committee
    • formed for specific purposes and usually temporary 
    • run investigations
  110. joint committee
    • consist of both house and senate members
    • similar in purpose to select committee
    • meant to draw attention to issues
  111. conference committee
    • consist of both house reps and senators
    • formed to hammer out differences between house and senate versions of similar bills
  112. pork/"pork-barrel legislation"
    "earmarks"- bills to benefit constituents in hope of gaining their votes
  113. logrolling
    congress members exchange botes
  114. 4 constitutional powers of the president
    • 1. military power
    • 2. diplomatic power
    • 3. appointment power
    • 4. veto power
  115. military power (executive)
    • commander in chief (civilian control)
    • send armed forces abroad
  116. war powers resolution 1973
    • pres must report to congress within 48 hours after deploying troops
    • if congress does not OK in 60 days, must withdraw
    • check on president, attempt to limit pres
  117. diplomatic power (executive)
    • create treaties
    • executive agreement
    • diplomatic recognition
  118. appointment power (executive)
    • appoint ambassadors, public officers, and supreme court judges with senate approval
    • civil service- most gov jobs under executive filled based on merit system
  119. veto power (executive)
    • return the bill to house it originated in
    • no action in 10 days= bill becomes law
  120. impoundment
    presidential practice of refusing to spend money appropriated by congress
  121. line-item veto
    veto certain parts of a bill, but not other parts
  122. divided government
    pres and congress majority represent different political parties
  123. vice president
    • preside over the senate, tie breaking vote
    • takes over presidency if the president cannot finish the term
  124. national security council
    advises on military and foreign policy
  125. office of management and budget
    • prepares national budget
    • largest office
  126. national economic council
    advises with economic planning
  127. impeachment
    house impeaches, senate tries the pres, chief justice presides over the trial
  128. bureaucracy
    large, complex organization of appointed, not elected, officials
  129. task specialization
    individuals have unique jobs, division of labor
  130. extensive rules
    clear policies for the organization to follow
  131. discretionary action
    bureaucrats have the power to execute laws and policies passed down by the pres or congress
  132. implementation
    develop procedures and rules for reaching the goal of a new policy
  133. regulation
    check private business activity
  134. iron triangles
    • three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests
    • legislators get funding from interest groups and make laws reality with the help of the bureaucracy
    • interest groups provide valued info to bureaucrats and money to legislators
    • bureau chiefs implement legislator policy and interest group goals
  135. patronage
    rewarding supporters with jobs
  136. spoils system
    • created by andrew jackson
    • each pres turned over the bureaucracy
  137. pendleton act
    created in response to criticism of patronage, more jobs will be selected based on merit
  138. hatch act
    agency employees cant participate in political activities
  139. marbury v madison
    allows courts to rule on the constitutionality of laws, giving the court the power to strike down or reinforce policy
  140. majority opinion
    justices in the majority must draft an opinion setting out the reasons for their decision
  141. concurring opinion
    justices who agree for other reasons can give their opinion
  142. dissenting opinion
    justices who disagree with the opinion write their side
  143. senatorial courtesy
    seek approval from local senators over locally appointed judges
Card Set:
2013-05-13 23:43:59
ap government test cumulative

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