Card Set Information
This report is filed with the court prior to sentencing by the probation department.
Two primary sentencing models used in the US.
Indeterminate and Structured
A fixed term of incarceration
A model that combines the use of indeterminate and determinate sentencing
Factors that relate to the commission of a specific crime that causes its severity to be greater than that of a typical instance of the same type of offense.
Those that favor the defendant and tend to reduce some of the blame for the crime
If a judge sentences two or more counts to run at the same time, it is called this:
If a judge sentences two or more counts to run one after another, it is called this:
This establishes guarantees against "cruel and unusual punishment"
Ruled the death penalty was often used in an arbitrary manner and was disproportionally used on race and not on the seriousness of the crime.
Furman v Georgia, 1972
The most common method of legal execution in the US
At end of 2009, how many states allowed for death penalty?
The founder of Pennsylvania and the leader of the Quakers.
The first true "penitentiary" in the US was called:
Walnut Street Jail
Sing Sing prison in NY is an example of the system that was a model for more then 30 state prisons throughout the 18th century.
Local facilities that are usually run by municipalities and counties.
Long term facilities that are run by the state or federal government.
An assessment of a prisoner's risks and needs is referred to as:
The most common levels of prisons in the US:
This punishment philosophy focuses on the needs of the victim, society, and the offender.
"an eye for an eye" is this philosophy:
The philosophy that is premised on teh idea that criminals can be "cured" and made to change their criminal ways.
The "father of probation"
The most common form of sentencing in the US today
A panel of individuals who decide whether an inmate should be released from prison after serving a portion of their sentence.
The Parole Board
Criminal offenders who are conditionally released from prison to serve the remaining portion of their sentence in the community while being supervised.
A requirement that an offender maintain contact with, and report to, the probation or parole authority at designated times.
The requirement that an offender under supervision of probation or parole complete twenty hours of community service.
Tow types of violations that an offender can commit that can result in revocation
technical violations and new charges
Offenders who ar incarcerated prior to the revocation hearing are given the opportunity to have this
Preliminary Inquiry Hearing
This case gives probationers the right to a preliminary inquiry hearing. And for parolees?
Gagnon V. Scarpelli
Morrissey v. Brewer
Parolees who have the highest recidivism rate are those who have been convicted of
When a judge sentences an offender to a short period of jail time before being released on probation, this is called:
Split sentence "shock"
The percent of all adults who are arrested every year in the US that are Military veterans:
The newest category of intermediate sanctions is:
The traditionally accepted age of reason during the 18th century was:
7 Years Old
The first juvenile court in the US was established in the state of:
This term means "the State as a parent":
Juveniles under the age of fifteen account for how many juvenile arrests?
If a juvenile commits an offense that would be a criminal act if committed by an adult, it's called:
Truancy, running away from home, and violating curfew, are all examples
In most jurisdictions, the juvenile intake process is conducted by:
juvenile probation department
The process of transferring cases from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court to the jurisdiction of the adult criminal court
Established that the standard of beyond a reasonable doubt be used in juvenile proceedings.
In re Winship, 1970
Juvenile corretional facilites are generally called:
residential placement facilities