Parasitology

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hannahshort
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219467
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Parasitology
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2013-06-25 14:05:01
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nematodes
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  1. Parasite
    Smaller organism that lives on or inside&at the expense of a larger animal
  2. Host expense dependent upon:
    • Number of parasites
    • Kind&degree of injury they inflict
    • Vigor or nourishment of host
  3. Phoresis
    one animal is transported by another

    Ex:
  4. Communalism
    • 2 organisms live together
    • Neither parasitic to the other 
    • One or both may benefit

    Ex:
  5. Mutalsim
    • 2 organisms live together
    • Both benefit 

    Ex:
  6. 2 types of parasitism
    • Multiple parasitism
    • Superparasitism
  7. Multiple parasitism
    Parasites of diff species parasitize a single host
  8. Superparasitism
    Excessive parasitization by same species
  9. Ascariasis
    Roundworms
  10. Ancylostomiasis
    Hookworms
  11. Trichuriasis
    Whipworms
  12. Cutaneous Larval Migrans
    hookworm infection under the skin
  13. creeping eruption
    CLM (hookworm infection under the skin) in humans
  14. Visceral Larval Migrans
    ascarids (roundworms) in humans
  15. Nematodes of zoonotic concern
    • ascariasis (VLM)
    • ancylostomiasis
    • trichuriasis
    • CLM (creeping eruption in humans)
  16. transmammary
    passage of parasite via milk
  17. inUtero
    passage of parasite via placenta 

    synonyms: intrauterine, transovarian
  18. morula
    stage in development of egg post cell
  19. vermiform embryo
    stage of egg development after morula

    (snake-like)
  20. anemia
    reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin 

    2 types: clinical anemia, aplastic anemia
  21. clinical anemia
  22. aplastic anemia
  23. normocytic
    normal size of RBC

    (micro, macro)
  24. normochromic
    normal color of RBC

    (micro, macro)
  25. indirect life cycle
    requires intermediate host (generally arthropod)

    Ex:
  26. direct life cycle
    no intermediate host needed

    Ex: transmission via urine, vomit..
  27. proprietary name
    brand/trade name

    Ex: Tylenol, Pepto Bismol
  28. non-propietary name
    generic name

    Ex: Acetominophen, Bismuth
  29. chemical name
    organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
  30. fecal score: 1
    • very hard and dry
    • individual pellets

    • no residue left on ground when picked up
    • requires much effort to expel from body

    (may be dehydrated)
  31. fecal score: 2
    • firm, but not hard
    • pliable (flexible)
    • segmented appearance

    little or no residue left on ground when picked up
  32. fecal score: 3
    • log-like
    • little to no segment

    • moist surface
    • leaves residue and holds form when picked up
  33. fecal score: 4
    • very moist (soggy)
    • distinct log shape

    leaves residue and loses form when picked up
  34. fecal score: 5
    • very moist
    • distinct shape present in piles rather than logs

    leaves residue and looses form when picked up
  35. fecal score: 6
    • texture but no defined shape
    • piles or spots

    leaves residue when picked up
  36. fecal score: 7
    • watery
    • no texture at all
    • flat
    • occurs in puddles
  37. parasites most commonly seen with naked eye in stool
    • ascarids (roundworm) spaghetti
    • cestodes (tapeworm) grain of rice
  38. in what region are heartworm disease and hookworms prevalent?
    Southeast

    (use of year-round preventatives)
  39. CAPC
    Companion Animal Parasite Council

    • foster animal&human health while preserving the human-animal bond through recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of parasitic infections
    • (create guidelines for optimal control of internal&external parasites that threaten the health of pets and people)
  40. 6 basic CAPC reccomendations
    • annual physicals
    • preventative flea&tick ASAP after birth
    • year-round broad-spectrum heartworm anthelmintics that have activity against zoonotic parasites
    • cooked food&fresh water
    • retest dogs heartworm status annually; test cats before and after placing on preventatives
    • fecal exams in adult pets 1-2 times a yr
  41. ancylostoma contracted by:
    • skin penetration
    • oral ingestion
    • transmammary
    • intrauterine
    • mammalian paratenic host
  42. specific gravity:
    • ascarids&ancylostoma: 1.06
    • trichuris: 1.15
    • cestodes: 1.23
    • physaloptera: 1.24
  43. flotation medium most commonly used
    zinc sulfate
  44. diagnosis of ancylostoma
    anemia associated with eggs in feces
  45. treatments for ancylostomiasis
    • panacur
    • drontal plus
    • intercepter
    • sentinel
    • heartgard plus
    • iverhart plus
    • proheart 6
    • pyrantel pamoate
  46. control of ancylostomiasis
    • deworming
    • monthly preventatives
    • removing fecal contamination
  47. ancylostomas inhabit the
    small intestine

    producing dark tarry feces
  48. clinical picture of ancylostomiasis
    • dark starry tool
    • pale mm with anemia
    • GI irritation (diarrhea)
    • microcytic&hypochromic
    • playing today, motionless tmrw, dead 3rd day
    • only eggs seen in feces
  49. all nematodes infective stage 3 except
    ascarids (2)
  50. most common and virulent hooks
    Ancylostoma caninum
  51. misconception about hooks
    blood suckers!!!

    feed on mucosa of SI (glucose) resulting in bleeding of mucosal lining
  52. life cycle of ancylostoma caninum
    • 1.dog consume 3rd stage larvae/penetrates
    • 2.larvae mature in SI and feed
    • 3.mature worms copulate&produce egg (2 wk after consumption, 4 after penetration)
    • 4.eggs passed in feces--hatch in 2-8 days
    • life cycle continues..
  53. larvae wandering through other organs (liver, lungs) may cause
    secondary hepatitis & pneumonia 
  54. PP of hooks
    14 days
  55. zoonosis
    • interchangeable with public health
    • animal has disease, shows symptoms,&can give to human

    *to be zoonotic the transmitter must be susceptible to the disease
  56. ppl susceptible to zoonosis
    • young
    • old
    • compromised immune systems
    • household with cat/dog
    • poor hygiene
    • works with animals
    • work in contaminated environments
    • pet owners failing to routinely deworm
    • vet professionals
  57. is the life cycle of hookworm direct/non direct?
    direct
  58. horses do not have
    hookworms
  59. Panacur =
    febendazole
  60. Drontal Plus=
    febantel, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel
  61. Task =
    diclorvos
  62. Nemex =
    pyrantel pamoate
  63. Interceptor/ Sentinel =
    milbemycin oxime, lufenuron
  64. Revolution =
    selamectin
  65. Heartgard Plus =
    ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate
  66. Filabritis Plus =
    oxibendazole, diethylcarbamazine
  67. transtracheal migration associated with
    ascarids

    (excluding toxascaris leonina)
  68. ascarid infection can occur by:
    • consumption of eggs
    • consumption of 2nd stage larvae
    • transplacentally
    • transmammary
    • predation of paratenic host
  69. can ascarids penetrate?
    no.
  70. ascarid of raccoons
    Baylisascaris procyonis
  71. transtracheal migration
    • 1.dog consumes 2nd stage
    • 2.larvae penetrates stomach, enters hepatic portal circulation
    • 3.migrates through liver parenchyma
    • 4.enters posterior vena cava&goes to lungs
    • 5.migrate up trachea to pharynx where swallowed
  72. PP for ascarids
    21 days
  73. primary means of transmission to puppies:
    • ascarids: transplacental
    • ancylostoma: transmammary
  74. synonym for transmammary
    galactogenic
  75. synonym for transplacental
    • transovarian
    • inUtero
  76. life cycle for ascarids
    • 1. ingest eggs, 2nd stage, or paratenic (eggs hatch in stomach and molt to stage 2)
    • 2. 2nd stage larvae invade bowel, move to liver, go to lungs via vena cava
    • 3. enter aveoli, coughed up into trachea, swallowed, mature in SI

    *if do not follow tracheal migration: encyst in muscle 
  77. larval leak syndrome
    ascarids/ancylostoma that do not follow normal routes of migration encyst in muscles and become dormant (hypobiosis)

    during pregnancy, hormones (estrogen) will activate encysted larvae to move out of the muscle and either pass through placenta or mammary glands infecting inUtero/newborns
  78. term for dormant state of larvae
    hypobiosis
  79. signs of ascarid infection
    • GI upset (diarrhea, vomiting)
    • respiratory disorder (due to tracheal migration)
    • pot bellied
    • dull hair coat

    • puppies-abdominal cramps
    • constipation, obstipation, or dyschezia (painful evacuation)
  80. inhabit cecum
    trichuris
  81. PP of trichuris
    3 months
  82. specific gravity for flotation much higher with
    trichuris
  83. transmission of Toxascaris leonina occurs only with these 2 mechanisms
    • ingestion of eggs
    • ingestion of paratenic host
  84. hooks live in
    small intestine
  85. rounds live in
    small intestine
  86. live in mucosa of anterior 1/2 of small intestines
    strongyloides
  87. life cycle of trichuris
    • eggs consumed directly
    • hatch&larval development occurs in jejunal wall
    • adults move to cecum where they reproduce approx. 11 wks after ingestion
  88. symptoms of trichuris infection
    • bright red blood in feces
    • anemia
    • abdominal pain
    • weight loss
    • flatulence
    • flank sucking
  89. treatment of choice for whipworms
    fenbendazole (Panacur)
  90. 3 forms of strongyloides
    • sexual male
    • sexual female
    • asexual/pathogenic female
  91. "threadworms"
    strongyloides
  92. what color blood do strongyloides produce in feces?
    bright red 
  93. intestinal threadworm in dog
    strongyloides stercoralis
  94. intestinal threadworm in cat
    strongyloides tumefaciens
  95. strongyloides & micronema collectively
    Rhabditoids

    (many of which live in decaying flesh, feces, dead plants, etc)
  96. life cycle of strongyloides
    • passing of larva of pathogenic female which then goes through 2 molts to infective 3rd stage
    • 3rd stage penetrate skin/consumed
    • 3rd stage migrate via circulation&lungs, going to intestines as 4th stage larvae
    • 4th molts to adult in upper 1/3 of SI
    • progeny may be shed in feces 7-20 days after infection
  97. can strongyloides penetrate?
    yes
  98. only parasites that can be passed as 1st stage larvae as well as in oviparous form
    lungworms and strongyloides
  99. lungworm of dog
    Eucoleus aerophila


    • "fox lungworm"
    • can be oviparous, pass larvae, direct or indirect life cycle through earthworm
  100. oviparous
    lay eggs
  101. lungworm of the cat
    Aelurostrongylus abtrusus
  102. clinical picture of dogs infected with Eucoleus aerophila
    cough turns into pneumonia
  103. lungworm-natural host in the mink
    Paragonimus kellicotti


    life cycle: eggs coughed up&swallowed, pass in water then picked up by snail, crayfish eat snail, dog eats crayfish (cryafish=intermediate host)
  104. these lungworms do not require an intermediate host and 1st stage larvae are infective
    • Filaroides olseri
    • Filaroides hirthi
  105. esophageal worm
    Spirocerca lupi
  106. life cycle of spirocerca lupi
    • eggs deposited&passed in stool
    • eggs hatch only after ingestion by suitable coprophagic beetle
    • larvae become infective and encyst in tracheal tubes of beetle
    • beetle ingested by paratenic host (lizard)
    • parentenic host ingested by dog
    • larvae liberated in stomach, penetrate stomach wall, find their way via arterial system to aorta and then to the esophagus
  107. PP of spirocerca lupi
    6 months
  108. why do strongyloides produce bright red blood even though they live in the anterior half of the SI?
    rapid movement through the intestines
  109. when passed, their eggs often hatch in the intestines and emerge in larval form ready to penetrate the skin of another host, often a human
    Strongyloides
  110. parentenic/intermediate host of:
    • Eucoleus- earthworm
    • Aelurostrongylus- molluscs
    • Paragonimus- crayfish

    Filaroides- do not require
  111. Baermann apparatus used to diagnose
    Strongyloides
  112. treatment of strongyloides
    Ivermectin 1/4mL/40#
  113. symptoms of spirocerca lupi (esophageal worm)
    • vomiting
    • dysphagia
    • aortic aneurysm
    • esophageal neoplasms
    • --can lead to secondary pulmonary osteoarthropathy
  114. "stomach worm"
    • dog-physaloptera rara
    • cat-physaloptera praeputialis 
  115. physaloptera look like ascarids but differ in 5 ways:
    • 1. in stomach only
    • 2. C shape
    • 3. almost always in vermiform stage
    • 4. transparent eggs
    • 5. feed on mucosa and cause dark bleeding
  116. life cycle of physaloptera
    • indirect (beetles intermediate host)
    • adults are attached to mucosa of stomach causing rupture of the blood that appears dark as it passes all the way down the alimentary tract

    eggs pass in feces
  117. "eyeworm"
    Thelazia californiensis
  118. intermediate host flies of Thelazia californiensis (indirect)
    • Musca domestic
    • Musca lacrimalis
  119. do Thelazia penetrate?
    no, lie on top of eye
  120. life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis
    • 1. dog 1 has adults(S5) and microfilaria(S1)
    • 2. mosquito takes blood and picks up S1
    • 3. S1 molts to S3 in mosquito (time depends on temp)
    • 4. mosquito inserts S3&saliva into dog 2
    • 5. S3 molts to S4 in subcutaneous tissue
    • 6. S4 stays in SQ tissue for 100 days
    • 7. S4 molts to S5(pre-adult) and moves to pulmonary artery
    • 8. S5 stays in pulmonary artery for 80 days then molts to adult S5
  121. stomach worm shared by horse&ruminant
    Trichostrongylus axei
  122. intestinal thread worm shared by horse&pig
    Strongyloides westeri
  123. intestinal worms of horse
    • P- Parascaris equorum
    • A- Anaplocephala (3)
    • S- Strongyloides westeri
    • S- Strongylus (3 large strongyles) /small strongyles
    • O- Oxyuris equi
  124. lung worm of horse
    Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
  125. stomach worms of horse
    • Habronema (muscae, majus, microstoma)
    • Draschia megastoma
    • Trichostrongylus axei
    • Gastrophilus (intestinalis, nasalis, haemorrhoidalis)
  126. "horse bots"
    Gastrophilus intestinalis
  127. "nose bots"
    Gastrophilus haemorrhoidalis
  128. "throat bots"
    Gastrophilus nasalis
  129. lung worms of ruminants
    • Dictyocaulus viviparous
    • Dictyocaulus filaria
    • Muellerius capillari
    • Protostrongylus rufescens
  130. stomach worms of ruminants
    • H- Haemonchus (placei, contortus)
    • O- Ostertagia ostertagia
    • T- Trichostrongylus axei
  131. barber pole worm
    Haemonchus placei
  132. medium or brown stomach worm
    Ostertagia ostertagia
  133. small or bankrupt worm
    Trichostrongylus axei
  134. twisted stomach worm
    Haemonchus contortus
  135. intestinal worms of ruminants
    • Bunostomum (phlebotomum, trigonocephalum)
    • Strongyloides papillosus
    • Oesophagostomum radiatum
    • Moniezia (expansa, benedeni)
    • Nematodirus spathiger 
    • Cooperia (punctata, oncophor, pectinata)
  136. cattle hookworm
    Bunostomum phlebotomum
  137. intestinal threadworm of ruminants
    Strongyloides papillosus
  138. nodular worm
    Oesophagostomum radiatum
  139. large bowel worm
    Chabertia ovina
  140. thread necked nematode
    Nematodirus spathiger
  141. tape worm of ruminants
    Moniezia expansa/ benedeni
  142. lung worms of swine
    • Metastrongylus
    • A- apri
    • P- pudendodectus
    • E- elongates
    • S- salmi
  143. stomach worms of swine
    • H- Hyostrongylus rubidus
    • A- Ascarops strongylina
    • P- Physocephalus sexalatus
  144. red stomach worm of swine
    Hyostrongylus rubidus
  145. intestinal worms of swine
    • Ascaris suum
    • Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • Globocephalus urosubulatus
    • Strongyloides (westeri, ransomi, suis)
    • Oesophagostomum (dentatum, georgianum, brevicauderm)
    • Trichuris suis
  146. thorny-headed worm
    Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
  147. which strongyles migrate viscerally in horse?
    large strongyles (4th stage)

    presenting a true danger for colic and death.
  148. strongyles have direct or non-direct life cycle?
    direct (no intermediate host)
  149. strongyles belong to the family
    Strongyloidea
  150. all large strongyles are known as
    "bloodworms" or "redworms"
  151. 3 species of the sub-family Strongyloidea of importance to us as health care professionals (equine)
    • Strongylus vulgaris
    • Strongylus equinus
    • Strongylus edentatus
  152. smallest and most dangerous intestinal parasite of equine
    Strongylus vulgaris

    viscerally migrates in cranial mesenteric artery
  153. strongyles located in
    mucosal lining (feed on glycoprotein)
  154. most common cause of death due to colic
    Strongylus vulgaris
  155. characteristics of Strongylus vulgaris
    • smallest of strongyles
    • most pathogenic
    • shortest PP (6 months)
    • smallest eggs
    • migration via intestinal arterial system leads to colic and death
  156. Strongylus vulgaris migration
    • 3rd stage larvae ingested by horse
    • larvae casts its covering and enters wall of cecum and ventral colon
    • larvae penetrates to submucosa, 3rd molts to 4th stage
    • 4th now penetrates small arteries and aorta and wanders progressively through to cranial mesenteric artery (a major supplier to intestines)
    • after 2-4 months of migration, 4th stage enters surrounding tissue and molts to 5th stage which enters lumen of colon
    • reproduction begins in a couple of months
  157. pathology of verminous arteritis (Strongylus vulgaris)
    4th stage larval migration results in inflammation of arteries, clots, and moving clots that block the flow of blood to the intestines resulting in death of bowel, no movement of enteric contents, colic, pain, and finally death
  158. collateral circulation
    body's ability to develop its own bypass to carry blood
  159. small strongyles do not
    migrate viscerally
  160. Strongylus edentatus
    3rd stage larvae burrows into the wall of the gut and reaches liver via portal veins. larvae make way back to cecum and into bowel lumen
  161. how do small strongyles differ from large?
    small larvae burrow into intestinal wall, lay dormant waiting for proper time to emerge. during encysted period are not susceptible to dewormers unlike large.
  162. equine pinworm
    Oxyuris equi

    • family: Oxyuroidea
    • direct life cycle
    • inhabit cecum and colon
    • pruritus ani(itchy anus) caused by eggs attached to skin around anus
  163. "seatworm of man"
    Enterobius vermicularis

    inhabits appendix, large intestine, female genitalia
  164. nicknames for Oxyuris equi
    • nocturnal worm
    • pinworm
    • rectal worm
  165. "the minute pinworm"
    Probstmayria vivipara

    • oxyurid of horse
    • entire lifecycle completed in one location:large intestines
    • adult females produce sexually mature offspring
    • no PP so multiply quickly
    • not considered pathogenic
  166. only ascarid in horse
    Parascaris equorum

    found in anterior part of small intestines
  167. direct lifecycle and transtracheal migration applies to this ascarid of the horse
    Parascaris equorum

    (2nd stage infective)
  168. transtracheal migration of ascarids
    • egg in feces
    • egg hatches, develops into infective 2nd
    • horse consumes larvae, penetrates stomach
    • uses blood to get to liver and lungs
    • 2nd coughed up and swallowed
    • now back in intestines they mature, breed, and lay eggs
  169. three different forms of gastrophilus sp
    fly> eggs> larvae=1 yr total
  170. With Gastrophilus intestinalis, where are eggs laid and larvae burrow?
    • eggs laid: hairs of forelegs and shoulders
    • larvae burrow: dorsal surface of tongue
  171. lifecycle of Gastrophilus intestinalis
    • flies lay eggs on hairs of forelegs and shoulders
    • after 5 days, horse consumes egg by licking leg bc itches
    • larvae migrate to dorsal surface of tongue
    • larvae remain in tongue for 30 days then move to lumen to be swallowed
    • will attach to stomach and live for about 11 months
    • then release their grip and fall in feces. pupal cases will release botflies in 3-9 wks
  172. most common equine bot species
    Gastrophilus intestinalis
  173. why wait until 1 month after the first frost to deworm?
    waiting until 1 month after the 1st frost will allow the recently acquired larvae to complete their journey in the oral tissue and to reach the stomach
  174. With Gastrophilus nasalis, where are eggs laid and larvae burrow?
    • eggs laid: under chin (intermandibular spaces)
    • larvae burrow: between molars
  175. lifecycle of Gastrophilus nasalis
    • eggs laid on intermandibular spaces
    • hatch in 5 days, crawl to mouth then between lips
    • larvae burrow into pockets between molars
    • in 4 wks move to lumen and get swallowed
    • larvae then attach to duodenum
    • in 6-11 months, larvae release and pass out through feces. pupal cases hatch in 3-9 wks
  176. with Gastrophilus hemorrhoidals, where are eggs laid and larvae burrow?
    • eggs laid: lips
    • larvae burrow: cheeks
  177. lifecycle of Gastrophilus hemorrhoidals
    • flies lay eggs on lips
    • hatch in 2-4 days
    • when horse drinks water, penetrate epidermis of lips and burrow into mucus membranes of the mouth (cheeks)
    • in about 2 wks migrate out into lumen and end up in duodenum
    • in about 11 months lose grip and pass in feces in pupal cases. adult bot flies emerge in 3-9 wks
  178. meds to remove bots
    • Carbon disulfide- Parvex Plus
    • Dichlorvos- Equigard
    • Trichlorfon- Combot
    • Ivermectin- Ivermec (drug of choice)
  179. intestinal threadworm of horse/swine
    Strongyloides westeri

    • small intestinal mucosa of young foal
    • can be passed S1 or egg
  180. family Rhabdiasoidea
    all of the Genus Strongyloides
  181. Trichostrongylus axei belongs to the family
    Trichostrongyloidea
  182. Trichostrongylus axei is a stomach worm shared between
    horse and ruminants
  183. Strongyloides westeri is shared between
    equine and swine
  184. "minute stomach worm"
    Trichostrongylus axei

    • in abomasum
    • resulting in ulcers, weight loss, anorexia, hemorrhage, death
  185. Strongylus vulgaris can kill the horse due to 
    4th stage migration
  186. Super family Spiruroidea-has 4 members that share the stomach with T. axei
    • Habronema muscae
    • Habronema majus
    • Habronema microstoma
    • Draschia megastoma
  187. equine stomach worm that can cause tumor
    Draschia megastoma
  188. Habronema/Draschia fly or larvae can perpetrate the host in 2 ways
    • larvae on skin will invade tissue causing "summer sore"
    • flies that are consumed enter GI tract and produce catarrhal gastritis

    (ulcers are common result of Habronema, Draschia produce tumor)
  189. tapeworm transmission (equine)
    • eggs passed in horse feces
    • mites living on horse pasture consume tapeworm eggs from feces
    • grazing horses swallow mites and become infested
  190. Genus of coccidia in farm animals
    Eimeria
  191. ruminant stomach worms
    • in abomasum "true stomach"
    • transmission: female lays eggs in abomasum, pass and develop into larvae, larvae crawl up blades of grass that are consumed by other ruminants, 2 molts in body of definitive host, mature male&female reproduce and pass their eggs.
    • lifespan= 1yr

    considered most pathogenic of helminths in ruminants
  192. Bunostomum phlebotomum
    • hook
    • active mucosal sucker, rupturing blood vessels along the way, creating anemic condition along with bloody diarrhea

    transmission: penetration, swallowing larvae from food or water
  193. hookworm of sheep and goats
    Bunostomum trigonocephalum
  194. "nodular worm"
    • sheep: Oesophagostomum columbianum
    • cow: Oesophagostomum radiatum
  195. why are Oesophagastomum nick named nodular worms?
    larvae are consumed, mature in intestines, penetrate the wall and form black nodules that can be seen through the mucosa

    (in sheep: nodules in large intestine, cow: in small, large, cecum, and colon)
  196. lungworm in the super family Metastrongyloidea since it has an indirect lifecycle requiring earthworm or snail
    Protostrongylus rufescens

    (most verminous pneumonias attributed to "lungworms" is a direct result of Protostrongylus rufescens, a common problem here due to flat land acquiring stagnant water)
  197. life cycle of lungworms
    • eggs laid in lungs
    • eggs coughed up, swallowed, and passed
    • eggs hatch in soil and larvae are consumed
    • larvae penetrate the intestine make their way via the blood to the lungs
  198. nematodes of swine
    • Ascaris suum-roundworm
    • Ascaris lumbricoides- in man
  199. lifecycle of ascaris suum
    • eggs consumed
    • egg hatches, larvae penetrate intestines
    • larvae enters hepatic portal circulation and grow
    • circulation carries larvae to lungs to migrate
    • larvae coughed up, swallowed, returns to intestines
    • there, adults breed and produce large # of eggs
    • eggs passed in feces and incubate in soil
    • eggs consumed..
  200. pathology of ascaris suum
    • "milk spots" caused by migration in liver
    • "thumps" coughing caused by transtracheal migration sounds like a thump
  201. what is significant about ascaris suum and lumbricoides?
    they do not feed on the mucosal lining like other other ascarids, they obtain nourishment solely from the contents of the pig/human intestines
  202. lifecycle that produces the condition known as "Thumps"
    trans-tracheal migration

    intestines>liver>heart>lungs>coughed up&swallowed>mature in intestines
  203. largest nematode of the human intestines/most prevalent parasite of humans
    Ascaris lumbricoides

    symptoms similar to Ascaris suum since lifecycle is similar: pneumonia, cough, pyrexia, rapid breathing, anorexia
  204. "common kidney worm" (swine)
    Stephanurus dentatus

    • worms occupy the kidney, produce oval eggs passed out with urine that incubate in the soil. the larvae can penetrate, be consumed, transmammary, or picked up by an earthworm as a facultative intermediate host
    • (direct/indirect lifecycle:earthworm)

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