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- Sources: The American Century, Keyensian Econs vs. Smiths free market.
- who: President of Guatemala
- what: In 1953 publicly announced a government seizure of hundreds of thousands of acres of uncultivated land owned by the United Fruit Company, a private enterprise controlled mainly by U.S. investors.
- when: 1913 - 1971, elected President in 1951
- why: Foreign companies such as United Fruit Company dominated Guatemalan economy and its lands. Arbenz reclaimed these lands for redistribution to peasants.
- where: Guatemala
- So what: United Fruit Company was in Guatemala since late 19th century. Jacobo Arbenz had the support of the Communist party but he was not a communist himself. Arbenz was pro-poor and wanted to redistribute the land. This policy threatens the small landholding class as well as the UFC. An early sign of American intrusion and dictation of “democracy” in the third world in the post wwii era. Although Arbenz offered monetary compensation to the companies, U.S. officials believed Arbezn’s policies to be communist. President Eisenhower engineered a coup through CIA to overthrow Arbenz. Arbenz regime fell in 1954 because of massive arms and money that US provided to Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas (CIA coup). Armas was assassinated in 1957 and Guatemala plunged into a civil war that lasted into 1990s. Arbenz was a pacifist and left office.
Asia for Asians
- Sources: Hashimoto Kingoro
- who: Slogan by Japanese
- what: A slogan
- when: During WWII
- why: To legitimize their expansion into Asia. Japanese argued that Japan would lead the way for other Asians into independence.
- where: In East Asia
- So what: The brutal repression and killings by Japanese forces changed the slogan into Asia for Japanese. On the one hand Japan expanded its territory into East Asia and on the other hand, anti-Japanese struggles and a sense of nationalism rose in East Asia. ? ⇐ Note sure if this is good enough?Textbook: 843-844
- Sources: Wilson's fourteen points
- who: Mainly drafted by the U.S. (FDR) and U.K (Churchill)
- what: A charter/Agreement
- when: 1941
- why: enabled many to push for their independence.
- where: Europe and US
- So what: FDR starts to promoted the idea of national self determination again and free trade. UK did not want to accept the ideals of NSD but was forced to do so because of the pressures of WWII. It also push for free trade. In this period many colonized countries saw America as being on their side. This is what linked the cold war and the idea of decolonization together.
- who: Venezuelan military and political leader, a Creole
- what: Played a key role in Latin America’s struggle for independence from Spain
- when: Life(1783-1830) Leadership: 1813-1830 - Bolivar b/m President of Venezuela in 1819
- So what: Enlightenment ideas circulated widely but were translated locally in different ways. Bolivar interpreted enlightenment ideas to drive revolution. While a complicated conjuncture of events caused the revolutions, ideas of nationalism, individual rights, and independence fueled them.With Bolivars leadership the South American’s colonies were able to depose their Spanish rulers. Bolivar had aspirations to create a confederation of states in South America similar to that of the US, but this dream never materialized.However, once he took power as President of the Gran Colombia, Bolivar transitioned from philosophies of democratic governance to strong government and military: “[Latin] America is ungovernable. Those who serve the revolution plough the sea.” –Simon Bolívar (Atlantic Revolution Lecture) Today’s revolutionary is tomorrow’s conservative. Wanted to create a united Latin America.
- who: European
- what: aftermath of the Opium Wars (China); unequal treaties; creeping European influence
- where/when: Ottoman Empire, China, Japan (1850s) how do they respond.
- why: gives European territorial rights around the world, so they do not have to abide by local laws. Provides European Powers w/ extraterritoriality- the rights to exercise jurisdiction over their own citizens according to their own laws. Also exempts European visitors from Ottoman, Japan, and Chinese law. Also allowed European businesses to establish tax-exempt banks and commercial enterprises and allowed foreign governments to collect taxes in these places.
- So what: Undermined local or national sovereignty of different nations because these nations could not prosecute the criminals of Western countries and the had to be sent back to their country where they could live under no or little prosecution.These unequal treaties came to an on 1943 after coming to power of the communist party in 1919. Chinese ended these unequal treaties in 1943. Nothing symbolized foreign influence more than the capitulations in the Ottoman empire: Capitulations were agreements that exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European powers with extraterritoriality - the right to exercise jurisdiction over their own citizens according to their own laws. Capitulations also served as instruments of economic penetration by European business people who established tax-exempt banks and commercial enterprise in the Ottoman empire.
- who: Part of President Truman Doctrine advocated by George F Kennan
- what: A policy, can be extended to “real or imagined threats”, goes hand in hand w/ the domino theory, if one country falls to communism, the rest will. Based off the ideas that idea that communism spreads through misery and hunger, thus the US needs to promote economic progress.
- when: Post WWII, more specifically after 1946
- why: To contain the expansion of communism
- where: Around the globe
- So what: Truman Doctrine starkly drew the battle lines of the cold war. The US committed itself to an interventionist foreign policy. Vietnam war and Korean war were an outcome of US containment policies closely linked with the domino theory. Kennan was a diplomat in Moscow who rang the bell against the spread of communism. Kennan advocated that if communism is not contained, communism would spread under the auspices of Soviet Union and this had to be stopped by the U.S.
- who: A proponent of Algerian anti-colonial struggle
- what: He was a writer and psychiatrist
- when: 1925-1961
- where: Born in West Indies
- So what: Fanon furthered his fame and provided ideological support for African nationalism and revolution in his writings. He urged the use of violence against colonial oppressors as a means of overcoming the racist degradation experienced by peoples in developing or colonial nations outside the Soviet-US sphere. His ideas influenced the independence struggles ongoing in Africa.
Olympe de Gouges
- who: early feminist and abolitionist
- when: 1748-1793
- where: France
- what: Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
- why: Speaking back to the assumptions in Rights of Man
- SO WHAT: She pushed for women’s rights and equality between men and women. Gouges campaign illustrated the power of Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality. Gouges was put the guillotine in 1793 because many revolutionary men were frustrated with her push and critique of lack of women rights and representation in politics. Gouges wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizens. She directly challenged the inferiority presumed of women by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Charged with treason during the rule of the National Convention, Gouges went to the guillotine on 3 Nov 1793. She was frustrated at lack of representation. They raised their voice for equality. She nonetheless, believed that women had a natural vocation at their homes. She also believed that it was women’s duty to raise republican children but they wanted more role in the public life.
- who: Hitler
- what: Nazi ideology that simply meant “living space”,
- when: Idea coined in the early 1900s, but specifically executed i guess when Hitler intensified operation Barbarossa in 1941 (start of the war with Russia)
- where: Germany
- So what: this space would be needed for the aryan race in order to carry on their perfect gene pool. The idea is that they would replace jews, slavs and bolsheviks with aryans. They needed the resources and the space that was available in eastern europe to do so. Also, they didn’t want to share this space, due to the dangers of intermixing, thus the inhabitants would need to be removed via any means. At the time Germany was experiencing overpopulation so lebensraum was seen as a solution to this. This was closely linked to social darwinism.
- who: An Egyptian General
- what: A personwhen: Rule Egypt from 1805-1848
- why: Modernized Egypt
- where: Egypt
- So what: He adopted European ways and technologies to modernize Egypt and the Egyptian army. He hired French and Italian officers to train his army. By 1820, although he kept some affiliation with the Ottoman empire, he was established himself as the effective ruler of Egypt. He became so strong that he invaded Syria and Anatolia and threatened the Ottoman empire with aspirations to attack Istanbul. Ottomans were about to lose the war to Muhammad Ali but with British helped the Ottomans defeat Muhammad Ali because the British were afraid that if Ottomans lose, Russians would take advantage of disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Textbook page: 707-740
- who: British and Chinese war
- what: A War
- why: Chinese
- where: China
- So what: British East India company sold opium to Chinese in return for silver coins. These coins were then used to buy Chinese goods at Guangzhou. Chinese officials noticed that opium has drained the silver and also has created social problems (addicts, sick people). When the Chinese government started to stop this trade the Brits started losing money and fought back by starting a war. Loss of war was disastrous for the Chinese government because it had to accept unequal treaties imposed by the British. China also lost Hong Kong in perpetuity and had to open 5 ports for trade with the Brits. Other countries also started trade with China. All of which weakened the Qing dynasty. Opium wars were ended by the treaty of Nanjing in 1842 in which opium trade becomes legal. Foreigners were granted right to travel freely in interior, preach Christianity, and patrol Chinese rivers. Slides for Mar 21, 2013 class (Industrialization and the rest)
- who: Critic of mercantile economics
- when: 1723-1790
- where: Scotland/England
- what: Inquiry into the Nature and Cause of the Wealth of Nations
- why: Believed that self-interest may serve a common good. Smith took this enlightenment idea and applied in a political economic context: “people will behave morally and fairly in their economic affairs and dealings with others” (Bohling).
- So what: importance for todayMisinterpreted as an argument for little or no state regulation of economic activity (“laissez-faire”).
“The American Century”
- who: Henry R Luis
- what: Life Magazine Article
- when: 1941
- why: Shows the change in the American attitude toward the rest of the world.
- where: US
- So what: Suggesting a big geopolitical shift, America creates pol/econ/cultural order around the rest of the world. Missionary zeal, but not religious. He was calling on the US to stand up and play an important role in the world affairs in the second half of the 20th century. He was calling for a major shift in American policy. The Americans is about dictating democracy to the rest of the world, it is about sending military forces to Vietnam and to start wars to promote and protect democracy and stop spread of communism.
The Young Turks
- who: Group of Revolutionary youth
- what: people
- when: 1908 Coup. Founded in 1889.
- why: Were instrumental in creating the modern Turkey.
- where: Ottoman Empire, Current day Turkey.
- So what: The young Turks got their ideas from Paris. Their emergence was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire. The young Turks came to dominance in 1908 through a coup, after which they created a parliament and a constitution and created a plan for a new modern Turkish state. Founded in 1889 by exiled Ottoman subjects living in Paris, the Young Turk Party vigorously promoted reform, and its members made effective use of recently established newspapers to spread their message. Young Turks called for universal suffrage, equality before the law, freedom of religion, free public education, secularization of the state, and the emancipation of women. In 1908 the Young Turks inspired an army coup that forced Abdul Hamid to restore parliament and the constitution of 1876. In 1909 they dethroned him and established Mehmed V Rashid (reigned 1909-1918) as a puppet sultan. Throughout the Young Turk era (1908-1918), Ottoman sultans reigned but no longer ruled.
Tiananmen Square Massacre
- who: Chinese, mainly students and the educated. Under Deng Xiaopeng
- what: protest
- when: 1989
- why: where: China
- So what: A massive economic liberalization programs starts in 1979 without the democratization process that has happened in Eastern Europe. The Chinese regime starts privatization of some industries. To build their industries, Chinese also send some students to learn the new technologies outside China. When these students come back they are discontent with the Chinese system. As a result there is a push for democratization and change. A major protest starts in 1989. Hunger strike, sit-in, occupation of public square were student-led popular demonstrations in Beijing in the spring of 1989 that received broad support from city residents and exposed deep splits within China's political leadership but were forcibly suppressed by hardline leaders who ordered the military to enforce martial law in the country's capital.In May 4, 1919, 70 years before the Tiananmen square there was another protest because of the foreign intervention in China despite the promises of the Paris Peace Conference. When Gorbachev and other officials leaves China, a massive crackdown on students starts.
The Scramble for Africa
- who: Many European nations
- what: a plan to divide Africa
- when: 1880-1914
- why: For Europeans to have access to raw material
- where: Africa - Berlin conference in 1884-1885
- So what: In 19 century Europe, nationalism was intimately connected to imperialism and having colonial possessions was a sign of power, wealth, and prestige. in 1875 only 11% of Africa was colonized, two major colonies were UK in South Africa and French in Algeria. Countries in Africa were created and borders were drawn without any attention to ethnic, linguistic or tribal relations of the indigenous people but rather based on trade networks. MOVIE ⇒ King Leopold II and his Congolese possession in 1870s. Leopold II’s actions pushes other Europeans to demand a piece of Africa.It was the invasion, occupation, colonization, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism (1870–1914) period, between 1881 and 1914. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The last 59 years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" (hegemony) by military influence and economic dominance, to the direct rule of colonies.
The Armenian Genocide
- who: Ottoman forces kill Armenian Christians in Balkans.
- what: genocide
- when: 1915-1923
- why: Armenians were seen as internal enemies.
- where: North Eastern Turkey
- So what: Ottomans feared that because of independence moves in the Balkans, Armenians would also seek their independence. There were some conflicts between the Armenian population and the Turkish armies in the 1890s. During WWI these conflicts re-emerge and the Turkish population target the Armenian population as an internal enemy. Between 1915-1916 about 1 million Armenian Christians are killed by the Turks.
- who: Fred Taylor
- what: when: 1920s
- why: to get automobile to every American.
- where: US
- So what: A factory management system developed in the late 19th century to increase efficiency by evaluating every step in a manufacturing process and breaking down production into specialized repetitive tasks. Taylorism made the assembly lines more efficient and increased production. The idea behind Taylorism is efficiency and productivity. Charlie Chaplin ⇒ Modern Times. Henry Ford’s assembly line concept made it more efficient and less expensive to build a car. In so doing, Ford would ultimately make the dream of owning a car a reality for the masses.
- who: Tagore’s book focused on this issue.
- what: A nationalist movement
- when: 1905-1908
- where: Bengal which was eastern part of India
- So what: Sepoy rebellion of 1857 was a turning point for Indian Nationalism. The indian soldiers rebelled because they learned that the British used lard for the packaging of their gun powder packaging or cartridges. Both Muslims and Hindus felt dishonored and disrespected because of this issues and they rebelled. This reason, nonetheless, was just a reason that sat over many other reasons because of British maltreatment of soldiers and other colonial subjects. This issues forced the British crown to dismantle the East India Company. In 1905 Bengal was partitioned which cuts the power of the wealthy Hindu class. The partition is also an insult to a people who lived as one for centuries. As a result a Swadeshi movement emerges that tries to do away with British good and consumes stuff only made in that region. Sandip in the book is the person who advocates for such practices. This movement also tries to create a national identity but it was very elitist because the local merchandise was more expensive than what arrived from UK.
- who: Lech Walesa
- what: Polish trade union and nationalist movement. It was the first non–communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country.
- when: 1980s.
- why: using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change.
- where: in Poland
- So what: The solidarity movement and other workers movements were able to gather force in the 1980s because Soviet Union was suffering from bad economy and internal issues. Gorbachev told the Eastern European countries in the 1980s that Russia would not be able to help those regimes if these countries have internal issues. Many workers unions saw Russia’s weakening as a good time to demand for their rights. The communist collapse in Europe and the soviet union:The Solidarity Movement in PolandOpening the Berlin Wall, 9 November 1989End of the Soviet Union, December 1991
- who: Herbert Spencer coined this term. Hitler used this idea to clean the Aryan race.
- what: Came out of imperialism
- when: late 19th century.
- why: Championed by thinkers such as Herbert Spencer, that attempted to apply Darwinian “survival of the fittest” to the social and political realm.
- where: Germany/Colonial powers
- So what: It was Darwin’s ideology applied to social life. The idea that races had to compete with one another in order to survive. Social darwinism also fed into the idea of expansion of Europeans. It advocated that Europe sits at the pinnacle of civilization and everybody else should follow their track. It also legitimized the intervention in the rest of the world. First Europe used this idea and later American government used the same rhetoric for economic development of the rest of the world.Adherents saw the elimination of weaker nations as part of a natural process and used the philosophy to justify war.
- who: French killing of many Algerians
- what: A massacre
- when: May 8, 1945 V-Day
- why: Lead into independence struggle. The ensuing upheavals dominated the political life of Algeria, which grew increasingly independent of political developments in France as the nationalist movement gained momentum. Each time France was at war, in 1871, 1914 and 1940, militants hoped to exploit the situation to win reforms or free Algeria from colonial rule. There were uprisings in the Kabyle region and eastern Algeria in 1871 and in the Aurès mountains in 1916. But May 1945 was different. There were widespread fears of another uprising but, despite claims, there is no evidence that it was on the agenda.
- where: Setif, Algeria
- So what: Algeria was the crown jewel of French empire. The independence movement through several parties that united under FLN was in the making since later 1800s and early 1900s. The massacre acts as a catalyst for the Algerian war of independence. Several French settlers are killed but the French army retaliates by killing several thousand Algerians in Setif. The Setif massacre epitomized the extent to which the French would go to keep their colony. Demonstrators in the Algerian market town of Sétif turned violent, extending their actions to the French settlers in the surrounding countryside. When 103 settlers were killed, the French authorities sent in the military (including the Foreign Legion and Senegalese troops) and police. The number of Muslims killed in retaliation is disputed. The official French tally (Tubert report) is 1,020. But historians believe that somewhere between 6,000 and 40,000 people died in the massacre.
- who: Chinese
- what: attempt to blend Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology. various industrial projects and enterprises were started in the Self-Strengthening Movement.
- when: 1860-1895
- why: to rid China from outside influence
- where: China
- So what: To adopt the cultural norms and what’s best from the Western culture for the Chinese culture and also protect their culture and traditions at the same time. l It led to the growth of urban cities, new industries and new social classes (capitalists and workers)Chinese sought to blend Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology. Movement leaders built modern shipyards, constructed railroads, established weapons industries, opened steel foundries with blast furnaces, and founded academies to develop scientific expertise. Although it laid the foundation for Chinese industrialization, it brought superficial change to the CHinese economy and society. The Self-strenghtening Movement did not prevent foreign intrusion into Chinese affairs.
- who: Colonizers, used by most of European powers
- what: anti-mosquito herb, particularly malaria
- when: 19th century
- why: enable expansion into the unknown
- where: all over
- So what: This protected the Europeans against mosquito borne disease such as malaria. Enabled European powers to penetrate the unknown, and colonize Africa. Shows the importance of the industrial revolution and the scientific revolution on imperialism. This was one of the main reasons for the expansion of Europeans around the world. Prior to discovery of quinine Europeans had to rely on Africans to bring merchandise from Africa to them to the at at the coasts. Europeans could not travel inland because of mosquitos. Quinine removed these limits. Quinine is extracted from a plant in South America and was discovered in 17th century, but its use became widespread in the 1850s.
- who: An American secret service member.
- what: A novel character in The Quite America.
- when: Prior to American military involvement in Vietnam before 1964.
- why: A symbol of American involvement in Vietnam
- where: Vietnam
- So What: It shows that it was important for the US to prop up regimes that would stand against the communist ideology. Pyle character shows the contradictions and uselessness of both American and Soviet model for the Vietnamese and that there should be a “Third Force” that can fit the needs of the Vietnamese people. He represents America, who is at first innocent, but later proves to be deceitful and is seen to have no care for the Vietnamese people. Pyle is a Harvard graduate who studied government and society and was a firm believer in York Harding, author of many books on democracy. One thing Pyle strongly believed in was York’s idea of a “third force” in the east. This third force was the United States, something Pyle believed was necessary for the benefit of the Vietnamese people. Pyle was a character who represented the inability of westerners to understand the motives and values of people living in other parts of the world. Pyle was against communism, and with Vietnam being threatened by communism, he believed a third force was necessary for the country to be saved by this force. According to Fowler, many Vietnamese had no interest in these matters, and were just content in staying out of it. Believes that the Vietnamese people are a mere statistic in the fight for democracy.
Paris Peace Conference
- who: France, UK, US dominated the conference.
- what: To set new int’l order based on democracy and national self determination.
- when: 1919
- why: to keep peace
- So what: The first permanent international security organization. The resolution in Paris Peace conference and war repayments of belligerent countries and the humiliation that loss of war entailed led to the rise of fascism and WWII. After the Paris Peace conference Germany saw its empire being dismantled. US didn’t participate in Paris Peace Conference. Woodrow Wilson also issued his fourteen points for the PPC and one crucial point in the 14 points was the right to self-determination that many colonized people used in their struggle for independence. PPC punitive and humiliative terms set the agenda for the WWII, on the one hand, and on the other hand, created the conditions for independence of many of the colonized people. meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris during 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") for the post-war world.These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. National Self-Determination League of Nations Mandate Ethnic self-determination
- who: Slave Rebellion Leader in Haiti
- what: A person
- when: lived 1744-1803, lead the revolution after 1791
- why: played a key role in Haiti’s independence
- where: Haiti
- So What: Boukman was killed soon after the slave rebellion in Haiti. Louverture who became a free man from 1776 became the Haitian revolutionary leader. Louverture was a skilled organizer and by 1793 he built a strong, disciplined army. He shrewdly played English, French, and Spanish forces against each other. By 1796 he had an army of twenty thousand men. In 1801 he promulgated Haitian constitution but he stopped short of declaring independence from France because he didn’t want to provoke Napoleon to attack Haiti.
- what: Nazi ideology
- when: Hitler initiated operation Barbarossa in 1941
- where: Germany
- So what: that simply meant “living space”, this space would be needed for the aryan race in order to carry on their perfect gene pool. The idea is that they would replace jews, slavs and bolsheviks with aryans. They needed the resources and the space that was available in eastern europe to do so. Also, they didn’t want to share this space, due to the dangers of intermixing, thus the inhabitants would need to be removed via any means.when- Idea coined in the early 1900s, but specifically executed i guess. At the time Germany was experiencing overpopulation so lebensraum was seen as a solution to this.
League of Nations
- who: Britain, France, Italy, Japan, NOT US
- what: An agency to keep the peace and police the world.
- why: to keep the peace in Europe
- where: Geneva
- So what: Principal mission was to maintain world peace through collective security as a deterrent. The League of nations had fundamental issues which prevented it from enforcing its decisions. Nonetheless, it set the stage for creation of the United Nations after WWII. An agreement between allied victors that was urged on by Woodrow Wilson, (ironically the US never joined the League of nations. League of nation lacked any mechanism to enforce law properly, the depression and lack of funding as a result of depression also meant less funding for the LN. The League had two major flaws:Though designed to solve international disputes through arbitration, it had no power to enforce its decisions.It relied on collective security as a tool for the collective security as a tool for the preservation of global peace. League of Nation aimed to:Maintaining the territorial integrity of its membersmandate systemdisarmamentminority protectionlabor rightshumanitarian, medical, and legal issues
- who: King of Ethiopia
- what: a person.
- when:1844-1913 - In 1896 he overthrows Italy.
- why: Nationalistic resistance against colonial powers.
- So what: Between 1850 to 1940 there were no colonial people who came close to overthrowing their colonial lords except Ethiopia. Successful in leading Ethiopia to victory/resisting colonialism rule from Italy. Ethiopia was one of the only places other than Liberia that was able to resist colonial power. Earned great fame, Ethiopia was recognized as independent by external power and had diplomatic representation. Kept white war slaves.King Menelik II became a continental hero for Africa. Menelik II defeats the 17000 strong army of Italy in 1896. And it became a source of inspiration for other African anti-colonial struggles.
John Maynard Keynes
- who: A British economist
- what: an intellectual
- when: life 1883-1946
- why: Was influential in forming the New Deal.
- where: Born in UK but New Deal was in the US
- So what: To Keynes the fundamental cause of the depression was not excessive supply, but inadequate demand. Accordingly, he urged governments to play an active role and stimulate the economy by increasing the money supply, thereby lowering interest rates and encouraging investment. He also advised governments to undertake public works projects to provide jobsand redistribute incomes through tax policy, an intervention which would result in reduced unemployment and increased consumer demand, which would lead to economic revival. He was influential in creating what’s known as Keynesian economics which asks for government involvement in the economy. FDR New Deals programs were heavily influenced by Keynes ideas.This book argues that FDR borrows little from Keynes.
Gulf of Tonkin incident
- who: between US and Vietnam Revolutionaries
- what: An attack on USS Maddox. Although very controversial, was confirmed that the attacks never actually happened. Thus, was used as a justification for the US to get involved in Vietnam. During a time when foreign policy was dominated by containment.
- when: 1964 Aug 2nd
- why: Provocation
- where: Gulf of Tonkin in Vietnam
- SO WHAT: The Vietnamese revolutionaries military attack on the US Maddox acted as a reason for the US to get involved in Vietnam militarily. Lyndon B Johnson asked the congress to start an undeclared war on the North Vietnam. On August 1964 CIA’s expert analyst concludes that no one had fired on US ships and provides this information to the White House and other key agencies in the Central Intelligence Bulletin. Senior CIA official in the Office of the Current Intelligence goes in person to the basement of the agency to order the paragraph deleted, explaining that “we’re not going to tell LBJ that now. He has already decided to bomb North Vietnam.The manufactured Gulf of Tonkin incident allowed President Johnson to expand the Vietnam war through the Gulf of Tonkin resolution without a Congressional Declaration of War. This was along the lines of containment.
- who: Stalin Blocks access to West Berlin. US and British air-force
- what: flew supplies of all types over Berlin to keep people “fed and warm”, flew around the clock, incredibly successful, Soviets wanted French, British and Americans to Vacate Berlin.
- when: 1948 -1949
- why: In reaction to the Soviet’s blockade of Berlin, a blockade which was in reaction to the allies merging their German zones and the issuing of the German Marc(currency)
- where: Berlin
- SO WHAT: The first place that the division between the US and SU camp was visible was the Berlin Wall. US, UK and France wanted to build West Germany. Berlin was also carved in four parts, US, UK and France merged their parts together to create a West Berlin. People were more prosperous and hence people preferred to live in West Berlin. When Stalin blocks the access roads between West Germany and West Berlin, the cold war becomes nearly hot. This was the first serious point of contention between US and SU. US starts flying planes to provides supply. Because both US and SU had atomic bomb there was a fear that Germany may be the site of a third world war. Berlin wall was created in 1961 to stop the movement of people from East Berlin to West Berlin.
- who: Ho Chi Minh & Viet men
- what: began a rebellion against French colonial rule.
- when: Aug 19, 1945
- why: sparked the French Indochina war
- where: Vietnam
- So what: Viet men and Ho Chi Minh March to Hanoi and establish the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. This was the opportunity for the Vietnamese to create their own state. The French nonetheless, desperate to fix their bad image and humiliation during the WWII and national prestige decide to take back Vietnam. The war breaks out in 1946. An issue that the later stages brings in the US into Vietnam war.
- when: Late 18th C.
- where: France was divided among three camps.
- 1st Estate-->Clergy: leaders of the Catholic Church; large landholders; corrupt
- 2nd Estate-->Aristocracy: wealthy landholders who profited from the feudal system, Aristocrats of the Sword: long lineages, Aristocrats of the Robe: 18C. bought their way into the aristocracy
- 3rd Estate-->Everyone else
- why: Louis XVI was an inept ruler; the third estate paid all taxes to fund wars; the king wanted second estate to pay taxes, but they refused
- what happened: 1789, Third Estate stormed the Bastille, stole the weaponry, wrote a Declaration of Rights of Men Became a French semi-representative party before the Revolution; “the people” outside of the aristocracy
- So what:
- who: Alfred Sauvy, a French intellectual
- what: a category or group of nations / Less world.
- when: Coined in 1952
- So what: Nations fall into the the Third World category when they did not align with the capitalist world led by the United States’ capitalist world (First World) or the communist world led by the Soviet Union (2nd World). 1st and 2nd are creating spheres of influence; disempowering those who do not identify. Some countries ban together to subvert these powers (Bandung Conference). Some countries play the powers off of eachother. Mention the third estate. The third world has a close connection with the French Third Estate. A view of the developing countries similar to the Third Estate and arguing that the Third World would rise up to challenge the former colonial powers. He coined the term in the context of Vietnam War and the discontent in Algeria. Sauvy was very anti-empire.