BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 5

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BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 5
2013-05-13 20:26:17
BIOL 404 Pulmonary Review

BIOL 404-Pulmonary Review 5
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  1. How do O2 and Co2 cross the membranes of the body?
  2. What is atmospheric pressure?
    Force resulting from collision of gas molecules.
  3. What is a gas partial pressure?
    Pressure contribution of one gas type
  4. What determines a liquids capacity/concentration of a gas?
    • Partial pressure
    • Solubility of a gas
  5. During diffusion each gas has its own ___________ independent of the other gases.
  6. What is Henry's Law?
    • Net diffusion of molecules will continue until gas partial pressure is equal on both sides of a membrane
    • Does not mean there is equal concentrations on both sides.
  7. What five things are included in the Diffusion barrier for O2 and CO2 entering and exiting the capillaries in the lungs?
    • RBC membrane
    • Plasma
    • Capillary membrane
    • Interstitial Fluid
  8. Is there an internal pacing system in the lungs?
  9. Without central innervation to ventilation muscles what happens to ventilation?
    Ventilation ceases
  10. What CNS centers coordinate ventilation?
    • dorsal & ventral respiratory group
    • apneustic center
    • pneumotaxic center
  11. What are humoral agents?
    • Agents carried by the blood that alter ventilation by acting on chemoreceptors
    • CO2
    • H+
    • O2
  12. What produces 70% of the breathing drive?
    CNS Chemoreceptors
  13. Where are ventilation CNS chemoreceptors located?
    4th ventricle floor
  14. What stimulates ventilation CNS chemoreceptors?
  15. Describe the CO2 bicarbonate system:
    CO2 + H2O Û H2CO3 Û HCO3- & H+
  16. Breifly describe how CNS ventilation chemoreceptors work:
    • CO2 enters the CSF
    • Undergoes the Bicarbonate reaction with H20
    • Released H+ stimulates the receptors
  17. What are peripheral chemoreceptors stimulated by?
    • CO2, H+ and O2
    • O2 is the least important
  18. Where are peripheral chemoreceptors for ventilation located?
    Carotid and Aortic bodies
  19. What sensory adaptors are found in the lung?
    • Slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors
    • Rapidly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors
    • C-fiber endings
  20. Pulmonary Slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors control what?
  21. Pulmonary Rapidly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors control what?
  22. What is the purpose of C-fiber endings in the lungs?
    defense, chemoreceptor
  23. What activates C-fiber endings in the lungs?
  24. Respiratory pattern generator is located where?
  25. Control of ventilation involves receptors located where?
    central & peripheral
  26. What molecule normally determines ventilation?
  27. What types are Sensory receptors in the lungs?
    mechano- & chemoreceptors
  28. What is the concentration of Hb in the blood?
    15 grams Hb / 100 mls blood.
  29. How much O2 Can the Hb carry?
    1 gram Hb can carry 1.34 mls O2.
  30. How much 02 can the blood carry?
    100 mls blood can carry 20 mls O2.
  31. How much 02 can be dissolved in the blood?
    • 1% of O2
    • 3mLs/L
  32. What is the Bohr effect?
    • reduction hemoglobin affinity for oxygen
    • Due to:
    • carbon dioxide increase and decrease in pH in the blood
  33. What is the Partial pressure of O2 in the arterial capillaries?
    95 mmHg
  34. What is the Partial pressure of O2 in the Interstitial fluids?
    40 mmHg
  35. What is the Partial pressure of O2 in the Cells?
    5 mmHg
  36. What percent of C)2 dissolves in the plasma?
    9% or 29mL/L
  37. What is Carbamino compound?
    CO2 and Hb
  38. How much C02 is carried as a Carbamino compound?
  39. Can C02 be displaced by )2 when attached to Hb?
    Yes, easily
  40. How is C02 primarily transported?
    As a bicarbonate ion (64%)
  41. Is the Co2 bicarbonate reaction fast or slow?
  42. What speed up the Co2 bicarbonate reaction?
    Carbonic anhydrase of RBCs
  43. What is the Chloride shift?
    The movement of Cl- into the cell to balance H+ produced by CO2
  44. O2 depends primarily on what for transportation?
    Hb for its transportation
  45. Hb saturation depends upon what?
    the surrounding PO2
  46. Why is O2 released at the tissue capillaries?
    Because of low cellular PO2
  47. CO2 is carried to the blood 3 ways, all driven by what?
    All driven by PCO2.
  48. What is the most prevalent form of CO2 transfer?
    HCO3- is most prevalent.
  49. What does Carbonic anhydrase do?
    converts CO2 to HCO3- & back again.