Anthropology Language

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Anthropology Language
2013-05-15 23:50:04

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  1. Morphemes
    •smallest units of meaning in a language
  2. Describing Morphemes: Bases
    • •Form foundations of words
    • •Establish basic meanings
  3. Kinds of Bases
    Roots and Stems
  4. Roots
    • •Serve as underlying foundation
    • •Can’t be broken down any further
  5. Stems
    • •Derived from roots
    • •Can have additional affixes attached
  6. Describing Morphemes: Affixes
    • •Attach to bases
    • •Add grammatical information
  7. Kinds of Affixes
    Prefixes, Suffixes, Infixes, Circumfixes, Reduplication, Interweaving, Portmanteau
  8. Prefixes
    • –im+possible
    • –un+likely
  9. Infixes
  10. Circumfixes
    –m+loz+i (fisherman)
  11. Reduplication
    -mpole+mpole (very slow)
  12. Interweaving
    –k+i+t+aa+b (book)
  13. Portmanteau
    • –Blog
    • –Brunch
  14. What Affixes DO
    Derivation and Inflection
  15. Derivation
    • –Changing one kind of word into another
    • *verbs into nouns, adjectives into verbs
  16. Inflection
    • Showing relationships among words in a group
    • *tenses, comparisons, persons, number
  17. Analyzing Arrangement: Free and Bound Morphemes
    • -Free morphemes are like bases (stand alone)
    • -Bound morphemes are like affixes (must be attached to other morphemes)
  18. Allomorphs
    •Variant forms of a single morpheme
  19. Syntax
    How words combine into phrases & sentences
  20. Ambiguities
    Indicate alternative substitution frames

    * Fruit flies like a banana, Eye Drops Off Shelf
  21. Kinds of Grammars
    Perspective, Descriptive, Generative
  22. Perspective Grammer
    Provides a model of ‘proper’ speech
  23. Descriptive Grammer
    Describes a language structure on its own terms
  24. Generative Grammer
    Generates all possible sentences of a language
  25. Frank Boas and Fieldwork
    • -—Language vs culture vs race
    • -—Language as window into culture
    • -—Language as necessary for fieldwork
  26. Phonetics
    sound of language

    *Acoustic, auditory, articulatory
  27. Acoustic
    physical properties of sound, sound waves
  28. Auditory
    perception of sounds, psychological “reality”
  29. Articulatory
    • -pronunciation of sounds, articulation
    • -also known as descriptive phonetics
  30. English Consonants are pronounced and can be described by three main components
    • —-Point of Articulation (Place in vocal tract where flow of air is modified)
    • -—Manner of Articulation (How flow of air is modified)
    • -Voicing (Whether or not vocal chords are vibrating)
  31. Approximants
    • -Sometimes called liquids & glides
    • -Variously charted in different systems
  32. Vowels can also be understood by looking at three components
    • -—Tongue height
    • -—Tongue advancement
    • -—Lips rounded or unrounded
  33. —phone
    • -—smallest identifiable unit of sound in language
    • -more easily identified by outsiders
  34. phoneme
    • -—smallest contrastive unit of sound in language
    • -heard as single sound by insiders
  35. —Phonemics
    • —-analyze arrangements of sounds
    • -identify groupings of sounds (phonemes)
  36. Variations
    • -—a phoneme can be a single sound/phone
    • -—or it can be a group of sounds/phones
  37. allophones of a phoneme
    • -—heard as ‘same sound’ by native speakers
    • -—usually ‘complementary’ to one another
    • -because variation is usually ‘conditioned’ by neighboring sounds
  38. —How many phonemes in a language?
    • -—From a few dozen to 100+
    • -Vowels 8.7 (English 14)
    • -Consonants 22.8 (24)
  39. Frank Boas's approach to Language
    Language reflects culture with finer distinctions and more elaborate vocabulary
  40. How Language Reflects Culture
    • •Cultural emphasis
    • •Cognitive Anthropology
    • •Ethnoscience as method
    • •Linguistic Relativity
  41. Language reflects culture with...
    –Finer distinctions and More elaborate vocabulary
  42. Ethnosemantics
    • •*Ethnoscience, Cognitive Anthropology
    • •Vocabulary indicates: “native” categories and Culturally important distinctions
  43. Linguistic Relativity
    • grammar influenced thought
    • *well-accepted idea
  44. Hanunóo Color Terms
    • •Dark
    • •Light
    • •Fresh
    • •Dry
    • •Reflecting an agricultural focus
  45. Linguistic determinism
    • *grammar determines world view
    • (controversial)
  46. Experiments in Linguistic Determinism: Yucatec and English
    • •Yucatec: Grammar stresses material
    • •English: Grammar stresses shape
  47. Language as Framing Device
    helps us organize and frame our experience of the world; AND to express our experience of the world
  48. Children and Language
    • •3 days– recognizing parents’ sounds
    • •3 mon– cooing, playing w/intonation
    • •6 mon– babbling, playing with sounds
    • •1 yr– recognizable spoken words
    • •15 mon– naming “explosion”
    • •2 yrs– simple sentences
    • •Then– negatives, questions, clauses
  49. Innatist theories
    • Language hard-wired in brain; language
    • acquisition device helps w adjustments
  50. Behaviorist theories
    –Stimulus and reward; Doesn’t explain “mouses”
  51. Cognitivist theories
    • –Concepts come first
    • •Research suggests simultaneity
  52. The theory theory (active construction of a grammar theory)
    –Children observe and build theories, Different languages - different theories
  53. Anthropological Observations
    • •by Ochs and Schieffelin
    • •Stress ethnographic studies of kids
    • •Language learned in social settings
    • •Becoming part of a speech community
    • •Ideas about language learning
  54. WHEN is Language Possible?
    • •Connected to HOW
    • •Involves research into brain…
    • •And vocal tract…
    • •And origins of culture
  55. Cortex
    • –The convoluted surface of the brain
    • –Contains 100 million neurons
  56. Oldest part of cortex
    • –Controls long term memory
    • –And emotion
  57. Newer part of cortex
    • –“Neocortex”
    • –Controls language
    • –Divided into lobes: Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital
  58. Left hemisphere
    • –association
    • –calculation
    • –analysis
    • –language
  59. Right hemisphere
    • –touch
    • –space
    • –music
    • –contexts for language use
  60. Broca’s area
    • –Clarity of speech
    • –Function words
    • –Some word order
  61. Wernicke’s area
    • –Understanding words
    • –Producing sentences
  62. Koobi Fora, Kenya
    • –Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas present:
    • •In Homo habilis 1.8-2 mya
    • •But not in Australopithecus (Paranthropus)
  63. The Human Vocal Tract
    • •Lowering of larynx (vocal cords)
    • •Lengthening of pharynx (increasing vowel resonance)
    • •Differentiation of vowels: [i] [a] [u]
    • •Human infants born with high larynx
  64. Evidence from basicranium
    • (Where muscles attach)
    • •Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo
    • erectus, Premodern Humans, Modern
    • Homo sapiens
    • •BUT Neanderthal somewhat different
  65. Associating language with complex tools
    • –evolution of tool design provides clues
    • *complexity of Upper Paleolithic tools
  66. Associating language with cultural complexity
    –art, music, ritual, cooperative hunting/childcare
  67. Identifying Phonemes
    —reveal contrasts in sounds: —‘pin’ ‘tin’ ‘kin’ ‘bin’ ‘din’ ‘gin’
  68. Morphology
    analysis of words and how they are structured
  69. Language can be 4 things
    • •a window into culture (Boas)
    • •a cultural map (Conklin, Frake…)
    • •a guide to social reality (Sapir/Whorf)
    • •a framing device