HeartWear Study terms

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evander4
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219513
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HeartWear Study terms
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2013-05-16 15:05:40
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Terms cardiac surgery
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Terms for cardiac surgery
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  1. Chronic Renal disease
    • 1. Kidneys fail to adequately filter waste from blood
    • 2. Water, ions and metabolic wastes are retained
    • 3. Fluid balance, pH, metabolism, muscular contraction, and digestion are disturbed
  2. Myocarditis
    1. Inflammation of the heart
  3. MCS Therapy
    1. Mechanical circulatory support therapy
  4. Beta-blockers
    • 1. Beta receptor inhibitor
    • 2. Prevents epinephrine from binding to receptors
    • 3. Decreases stress response
    • 4. decrease in renin secretion from kidneys which decreases heart's oxygen demand by lowering extracellular volume and increasing oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
    • 5. decreases heart rate which increases ejection fraction
  5. ACE inhibitors
    • 1. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
    • 2. Prevents angiotensin I from converting to angiotensin II
    • 3. Decreases blood pressure by dilating blood vessels
  6. LVEF
    • 1. Left ventricular ejection fraction
    • 2. % of blood leaving the heart each time it contracts
  7. Cardiac cachexia
    • 1. Weakness and wasting of the heart due to chronic and severe illness
    • 2. Characterized by low albumin levels
  8. Pulmonary edema
    1. Swelling, excess fluid on the lungs caused by heart problems
  9. Pleural effusions
    1. Accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  10. DCM
    • 1. Dilated cardiomyopathy
    • 2. Decreased ability to pump blood because the left ventricle is enlarged
    • 3. Dilated and weak heart responds by stretching to hold more blood to pump through the body
    • 4. With time, heart muscle weakens and is unable to pump blood as strongly
  11. Thromboembolism
    1. Clot (thrombosis) in blood vessel that breaks loose and is carried through the blood stream to plug a different location
  12. ICD
    • 1. Implantable cardio-defibrillator
    • 2. Device that provides electrical shock when abnormal heart beat is present
  13. Pulmonary disease
    • 1. Narrowing of airways, decreased air flow rate to and from alveoli
    • 2. Obstructions caused by smoking, genetics, environment, occupational health
  14. Pulmonary hypertension
    • 1. High blood pressure in arteries of lungs
    • 2. Makes right side of the heart work harder than normal caused by vasoconstriction in small arteries of the lungs
  15. Pulmonary Embolis
    • 1. Blockage of a main artery of the lung
    • 2. Blood clot
  16. Atrial Arrhythmia
    1. Change in the heart's normal rhythm that occurs in right or left atrium
  17. Thoracic aortic disease
    • 1. Aortic aneurysm, swelling of the aorta
    • 2. Progressive enlargement of the ascending aorta leading to dissection, tear or rupture
  18. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia
    • 1. Decreased platelet count as a result of heparin use
    • 2. Caused by a formation of abnormal antibodies that activate platelets
  19. Chronic coagulopathy
    1. Clotting disorder
  20. Peripheral vascular disease
    1. Obstruction of large arteries not in aortic arch, coronary artery or brain
  21. Complete AV septal defect
    • 1. Abnormal or inadequate fusion in the septum
    • 2. Large hole between lower atria and upper ventricle
    • 3. Abnormality of AV valves
  22. Congenitally corrected transposition
    • 1. Condition where the ventricles are reversed
    • 2. LV (stronger) pumps to the lungs while RV (weaker) pumps to the body
    • 3. In corrected, arteries are inverted as well resulting in normal blood flow
  23. Ebstein's anomaly
    • 1. Septal leaflet of tricuspid valve is displaced towards the apex of the RV
    • 2. Results in large RA
  24. Hypoplastic left heart
    • 1. Left side is under developed
    • 2. Ventricle is very small, mitral and aortic valves are small or completely closed
  25. Pulmonary atresia with IVS
    • 1. IVS - intact ventricular septum
    • 2. Pulmonary valve is completely closed
    • 3. Structures on the right side are usually small
  26. Single ventricle
    • 1. rare disorders affecting the lower chamber of the heart
    • 2. Includes hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia and tricuspid atresia
  27. Transposition of the great arteries
    1. Aorta and pulmonary arteries are switched
  28. Truncus arteriosus
    1. One blood vessel instead of two and ventricular septal defect
  29. VSD/ASD
    • 1. Ventricle septal defect
    • 2. Atrial septal defect
  30. Kawasaki disease
    • 1. Inflammation of blood vessels and arteries, especially coronary arteries
    • 2. Can lead to aneurysms
  31. Ischemic disease
    • 1. Reduced blood supply¬†
    • 2. Usually due to coronary artery disease
  32. CABG
    • 1. Coronary artery bypass grafting
    • 2. Healthy artery or vein from the body is connected to the blocked artery so that blood bypasses the blocked portion of the coronary artery
    • 3. For patients with severe coronary artery disease
  33. Aneuryomectomy (DOR)
    1. Repairs an aortic aneurysm that is likely to rupture if left in place (one that is >5cm in length)
  34. AVR
    1. Aortic valve replacement/repair
  35. MVR
    1. Mitral valve replacement/repair
  36. TR
    1. Tricuspid replacement/repair
  37. TAH
    • 1. Total artificial heart
    • 2. Replaces the ventricles to control blood flow to the body and lungs
  38. Norwood Stage I
    • 1. Procedure used to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome or conditions that result in single ventricle circulation
    • 2. Main pulmonary artery is separated from L/R portions and attached to the aorta
    • 3. Tubing attaches ventricle to pulmonary artery to lungs
  39. PA Banding
    • 1. Pulmonary artery banding
    • 2. Used to reduce blood flow and PA blood pressure in infants with congenital heart defect
    • 3. Band is wrapped around PA and tightened to reduce blood flow and pressure
  40. TOF/DORV/RVOTO repair
    • 1. TracheoOesophageal Fistula: Abnormal connectiong between the esophagus and trachea
    • 2. Double outlet right ventricle: Both great arteries connect to the right ventricle
    • 3. ??
  41. AP Shunt
    • 1. Arterioportal shunt
    • 2. Allows blood to deviate from the normal flow
  42. DKS
    • 1. Damus Kaye Stansel
    • 2. Used to correct a systemic obstruction in arterial blood flow
    • 3. Joins the aorta and pulmonary arteries
  43. Fontan
    • 1. Diverts venous blood from the RA the PA without passing through the RV
    • 2. Developed as a surgical treatment for tricuspid atresia
  44. Glenn procedure
    • 1. Bi-directional: First stage of Fontan, redirects oxygen poor blood from the top of the¬†body to the lungs, SVC is redirected to the PAs
    • 2. Classical: SVC is sewn shut near junction with RA, the RPA is cut and attached to SVC, only sends blood to right lung
  45. ECMO
    • 1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
    • 2. Blood drained from venous system is drained and oxygenated outside the body
    • 3. Blood is replaced to arteries (VA ECMO) or back to venous system (VV ECMO)
  46. IABP
    • 1. Intra-aortic baloon pump
    • 2. Cylindrical polyethylene balloon that sits in aorta
    • 3. deflates in systole, inflates in diastole
    • 4. increases blood flow to coronary arteries
  47. Dobutamine
    • 1. IV inotrope therapy
    • 2. Stimulates beta receptors, does not release NE
    • 3. Increases HR and stroke volume
    • 4. Short term treatment (a few hrs)
  48. Inotrope therapy
    • 1. Alters the force of muscular contractions
    • 2. Dobutamine, dopamine, milrinone, levosimendan, epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoproterenol

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