Anthropology Questions

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Anthropology Questions
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2013-05-14 02:48:41
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  1. Archaeologists are principally interested in
    Understanding and reconstructing the cultures of past societies
  2. Mutations are
    The ultimate source of diversity in living populations
  3. Progress occurs in paleoanthropology through
    finding more fossil evident, extracting more information from exiting fossil evidence, and improving analytical methods
  4. John Ray developed the species concept.  Who developed the system of classification for living things that we use (with some modification) today?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  5. A relic or trace of a once living organism is called
    a fossil
  6. Many hominin fossils are found
    in layers of sedimentary rock
  7. Bishop James Ussher claimed that the earth was created at exactly
    9am on October 23rd, 4004 BCE
  8. _______ make the best samples for the K/Ar and 40Ar/39AR dating methods
    Volcanic rocks
  9. Hominin fossils that are millions of years old
    are seldom found in good condition
  10. Agriculture (intensive cultivation) is characterized by a
    Relatively effective techniques of water and soil control
  11. Cultural relativity requires that
    All cultures be understood from their own point of view
  12. Which form of subsistence technology requires the greatest degree of specialization of labor?
    Industrialization
  13. The earliest human food-getting strategy was
    Foraging
  14. Culture is made up of learned behaviors which are learned
    Continuously; throughout life
  15. Ethnocentrism is the tendency for
    Every society to view itself as superior to others
  16. What is part of all human cultures?
    Subsistence technology, Economic Organization, Social Organization, and Political Organization
  17. In Africa, early premodern humans (as defined in class, not in the text) appeared around ____ years ago; and is often placed in the species _______
    600,000; Homo heidelbergensis
  18. The fieldwork technique at the heart of anthropological data collection is called
    Participant observation
  19. The dominant system of exchange in band/foraging societies is
    reciprocity
  20. The written account of a culture based on fieldwork is called
    An ethnography
  21. One of your textbook authors did fieldwork
    in a Mixtec village in Mexico
  22. When a group collects goods and then gives them out to their own members or members of other groups, they are participating in
    redistribution
  23. A central function of kinship in almost every society is that it provides for
    The transfer of property between generations
  24. According to the Compete Replacement Model, the transition from pre-modern to modern Homo sapiens
    only occurred once; in Africa
  25. Anthropologists spend so much time studying kinship because
    Kinship plays the most important role in determining rights and obligations in nonindustrial societies
  26. Current evidence indicates that ____ was the first hominin to migrate out of Africa
    H. erectus
  27. The ultimate ancestral home of all humans is
    Africa
  28. In Africa, Neandertal fossils have been found at...
    nowhere
  29. According to some of the most recent evidence, the first modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around _______years ago
    200,000
  30. Which of the following best describes the concept of “prehistory?
    A time period before written records
  31. The world’s first cities developed in
    Mesopotamia
  32. What do proponents of the hydraulic hypothesis for the origin of the state argue?
    States were the by-products of the organizational requirements of large irrigation systems
  33. What is NOT a characteristic of states?
    They lack hereditary inequality
  34. An archaeological “site” is
    any spot on the landscape with detectable traces of human activity
  35. Food producers work harder than...
    foragers
  36. “Neolithic” means
    New Stone (Age)
  37. A small blade of flint or similar stone, that could be hafted along with others in a wooden handle is called a
    microlith
  38. Natufian culture was
    a Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago
  39. One of the major advances in understanding how tools were used is in the analysis of
    the microwear of the tool, using powerful microscopes to observe the striations and wear patterns on the tool
  40. Who, in accepting the concept of evolution,  was the first to actually attempt to describe a mechanism by which species change?
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  41. The term evolution refers to
    changes in the genetic make-up of a population from one generation to the next; process of speciation; ongoing biological processes, including genetic changes within populations and the appearance of new species
  42. A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is called
    a species
  43. Well into the 19th century in Europe, there were widely held beliefs inhibiting the acceptance of biological evolution. What did these concepts include?
    the notion that species did not change, and a recent origin of life on earth
  44. In formulating his theory of natural selection, Darwin ____
    • -recognized the importance of biological variation within a population
    • -applied his knowledge of domesticated species to undomesticated ones
    • -appreciated the fact that population size is limited by availability of food
  45. The term hominin refers to a distinction made at what taxonomic level?
    Tribe
  46. "Fitness," in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual's ____
    reproductive success
  47. Primatology is the study of
    nonhuman primates
  48. In the United States, anthropology is comprised of _____ major subfields
    4
  49. The subdiscipline of anthropology concerned with various aspects of human language is called
    linguistic anthropology
  50. The study of human biology within the framework of human evolution is the domain of
    physical/biological anthropology
  51. Forensic anthropologists
    apply anthropological techniques to the law
  52. The initial step in the scientific method is
    the formation of a hypothesis
  53. A scientific theory is
    a hypothesis that has yet to be falsified
  54. Several events had combined to alter Western Europeans’ ideas about the earth by the 18th century.  These included...
    • -circumnavigation of globe
    • -discovery of New World
    • -discovery of heliocentric universe
  55. Who first recognized that species were groups of organisms that were distinguished from other such groups by their ability to reproduce?
    John Ray
  56. Who developed the binomial system of classifying biological organisms?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  57. The theory that the frequent use of an organ caused it to be enhanced was developed by
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  58. Who proposed that population size increases at a faster rate than food supplies?
    Thomas Malthus
  59. Who wrote Principles of Geology and emphasized the principle of uniformitarianism?
    Charles Lyell
  60. Mary Anning is credited with
    finding numerous important fossils during the 19th century
  61. Charles Darwin
    began to doubt the fixity of species during a voyage around the world in the 1830s
  62. The fact that individuals who possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those who possess less favorable traits is the basis for the theory of...
    natural selection
  63. Darwin did NOT based his evolutionary ideas on
    • -religious views of time of a very young earth
    • -reality of concept of fixity of species
    • -an understanding of modern genetic principles
  64. Selective pressures
    can change if environmental conditions change
  65. What are the characteristics of primates’ prehensile hands?
    • -Retention of 5 digits
    • -Opposable thumb
    • -Nails instead of claws
    • -Tactile pads
  66. Primate
    teeth are generalized because primates are omnivorous
  67. The primate emphasis on the visual sense is reflected in
    the reduction in the size of structures related to the sense of smell, the presence of color vision in most species, and a more forward facing position of the eyes relative to most other mammals
  68. What are vertebrates?
    • mammals
    • -NOT birds, reptiles, amphibians
  69. Reptiles were the dominant form of land vertebrate during the
    Mesozoic
  70. Monotremes are
    egg-laying fish
  71. In _________ the young are born in an extremely immature state and complete development in their mother’s external pouch
    marsupials
  72. The diversification of reptiles facilitated by the evolution of the reptilian egg is a good example of
    adaptive radiation
  73. Pastoralism can be either transhumant or nomadic (T/F)
    true
  74. Industrialism has led to increased equality among people worldwide (T/F)
    false
  75. The gathering and interpretation of information based on intensive, firsthand study is called
    ethnography (T/F)
    true
  76. All modern humans are descended from a group of pre-modern humans living in South East Asia around 125,000 years ago
    false
  77. The oldest possible hominin found to date has been given the genus name Sahelanthropus
    true
  78. The fossil skeleton known as “Lucy” belongs to which species?
    A. afarensis
  79. Homo erectus/ergaster appeared in East Africa about _____ million years ago
    1.8
  80. Before hominins made stone tools, they probably ____
    used sticks or other perishable materials
  81. The earliest hominin traces ____
    are primarily teeth and jaws
  82. What does the Regional Continuity Model of modern Homo sapiens origins propose?
    • -Modern humans didn't appear solely in Africa
    • -Premodern populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa all evolved into modern Homo sapiens
    • -There was gene flow between premodern populations from different regions of the Old World
  83. According to the most recent evidence, the first modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around ____ years ago
    200,000
  84. Anatomical changes in hominins indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include ____
    shortening and broadening of the pelvis
  85. Homo erectus differs most distinctly from modern humans in ____
    cranial shape
  86. Homo erectus fossil remains have NOT been found in...
    Mexico, North America, South America
  87. Thus far, there is agreement that all hominins found outside Africa are members of which genus?
    Homo
  88. A common form of horticulture practiced today is
    “Slash and Burn”, “Shifting cultivation”, and "Swidden farming”

    (all the same term)
  89. Agriculture (intensive cultivation)
    can result in the development of a peasantry
  90. Anthropologists have an ethical responsibility
    to the people they study, to the field of anthropology, to the society that supports their research, to do no harm in their research
  91. Collaborative Anthropology
    is when anthropologists give priority to the their consultants/informants in their research
  92. The Kula Ring of the Trobriand Islands is an example of
    reciprocity
  93. With a more reliable food source, the early food producers were considerably healthier than hunter-gatherers (T/F)
    false
  94. Teosinte is...
    a wild grass similar to the ancestor of modern corn
  95. A “primary state” is
    a state that developed without any outside influence or contact with another state level society
  96. Early states had productive
    farming economies
  97. A “leveling mechanism” is a practice, value, or form of social organization that moves ever greater amounts of wealth into the hands of the elite (T/F)
    false
  98. Experimental archaeology involves
    the study of how artifacts were made and used
  99. In early states, cities generally served as
    political, religious, and administrative centers
  100. Early states lacked
    social classes
  101. The earliest civilizations that developed independently were found in
    The Middle East, Asia, Mesoamerica, and South America
  102. Archaeological evidence for social stratification includes
    marked differences in grave goods
  103. A period at the end of the glaciations in some areas resulted in
    marked changes in the environment, a shift to hunting smaller game and utilizing more aquatic foods, and more sedentary groups
  104. A rule that allows women to have more than one husband is called a rule of
    polyandry
  105. The development of cities did NOT result in...
    more orderly societies, increase human life span, widespread literacy
  106. Domestication involves
    interfering with the reproduction of other species, seed selection of plants; selective breeding of animals; and an evolutionary process in which humans modify the genetic make up of plants and animals
  107. In a modern city, nearly every institution do NOT depend on
    religious organizations, public utilities, the cultivation of barley, kinship networks
  108. What is not associated with the development of civilization
    improvements in hygiene
  109. In many states in the United States, whites and blacks were once not permitted to marry. This is an example of the rule of
    Endogamy
  110. The earliest plant domestication
    took place in the “Fertile Crescent”
  111. Objects that have been deliberately and intelligently shaped or altered by human activity are called
    artifacts
  112. In general, domestication led to
    sedentary life become more widespread
  113. What is the name given to the cultural period in which the first signs of domestication are present?
    Neolithic
  114. Archaeologists limit their study to
    all constructed by humans in that past that can be recovered by archaeologists may be studied
  115. Incest taboos
    • help to avoid inbreeding, help prevent disruption in the nuclear family, direct
    • sexual desire outside the family, and have been known to have exceptions
  116. Which of the following is a benefit of farming over foraging?
    Increase in overall food supply
  117. In the Near East, domestication of plants and animals begin to replace foraging as the basis of subsistence around
    10,000 years ago
  118. A __________ is a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into classes
    state
  119. Before a site is excavated
    it is mapped
  120. The concept of employers paying employees less than the value of their labor is
    the source of profit, and called the “surplus value of labor

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