304 final

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tuchiyama10
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304 final
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2013-05-14 18:14:42
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  1. Elements of structure (6: WCSCFD)
    • 1. work specialization
    • 2. chain of command
    • 3. span of control
    • 4. centralization/decentralization
    • 5. formalization
    • 6. departmentation
  2. Org designs (5: SBMVH)
    • 1. simple structure
    • 2. bureaucracy
    • 3. matrix structure
    • 4. virtual org
    • 5. horizontal/boundaryless org
  3. Simple structure
    • authority centralized in owner
    • informal -> lack of structure
    • benefits: inexpensive, flexible
    • costs: inefficient, dependent on owner
  4. Bureaucracy
    • functional depts
    • standardized tasks
    • high formalization, centralization
    • benefits: efficiency, low labor costs
    • costs: coord costs, rule bound
  5. Matrix structure
    • functional & product departmentalization
    • 2 bosses
    • benefits: coordination across multiple products/projects, efficient allocation of specialists/professionals
    • costs: confusion and power struggles; leadership skills, stress
  6. Virtual org
    • small centralized core
    • outsource major business functions
    • benefits: gain scale w/o mass, flexible and adaptive, quickly access new markets
    • costs: loss of control, hard to form and manage, requires trust
  7. Horizontal org
    • organize around core processes (e.g. new product development, customer support)
    • use multi-disciplinary teams to manage processes
    • owner for each process
    • reduce vertical and horizontal boundaries
    • communication via networked computers
    • benefits: highly flexible and business focused, reduces control/coord costs
    • costs: difficult to implement, requires new skill & methods, new info technology
  8. Mechanistic vs. organic
    • mech: high formalization, high centralization; bureaucracy
    • organic: low formalization high decentralization; ss, m, vo, ho
  9. Determinants of structure (4: SSTE)
    • 1. strategy (structure follows strategy): innovation, minimize cost, imitation
    • 2. size
    • 3. technology: degree of routine-ness
    • 4. environment: degree of uncertainty
    • (see chart in notes)
  10. Culture (VBN)
    • system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes org from others
    • values: what's important
    • beliefs: how things work
    • norms: how members should behave
  11. Culture's role in org effectiveness
    • efficient communications, coordinations, control
    • substitute for formalization
    • commitment to org
    • success when culture fits strategy and competitive environment
    • liability when culture does not (barrier to change, diversity, acquisitions and mergers)
  12. Corporate strategy, HR strategy, HR management
    • how firm will use its resources to gain competitive advantage
    • how firm will use HR to implement corp. strategy
    • policies and practices used to implement HR strategy
  13. Forces for change (5: WTCSP)
    • 1. work force
    • 2. technology
    • 3. competition
    • 4. social trends
    • 5. political trends
  14. Sources of individual resistance to change (5: HSEFS)
    • 1. habit
    • 2. security
    • 3. economic factors
    • 4. fear of unknown
    • 5. selective info processing
  15. Sources of org resistance to change (4: SLGT)
    • 1. structural inertia
    • 2. limited focus of change
    • 3. group inertia
    • 4. threats to enterprise, power relationships, resource allocations
  16. Overcoming resistance to change (6: EPFNMC)
    • 1. education and communication
    • 2. participation
    • 3. facilitation and support
    • 4. negotiation
    • 5. manipulation and cooptation 
    • 6. coercion
  17. Lewin's 3 step model
    Unfreezing status quo -> movement to new state -> refreezing changes
  18. OD goals
    • improve org effectiveness
    • improve org's capacity to solve own problems and change itself
  19. OD values
    • respect for people
    • trust and support
    • power sharing and participation
    • openness to info
  20. Center for Effective orgs
    • some clients: GM, Verizon, HP
    • help org to improve self
    • generate new knowledge that can be applied to other orgs
  21. Traditional change methods
    • management initiated and controlled
    • problem focused
    • experts analyze and design solutions
    • doers implement solutions
    • rolled out as packaged change program
    • change is discrete event
  22. Problems w/traditional change methods
    • conflicts b/w experts and doers
    • lack of employee buy-in
    • too rigid, not adaptive
    • limited learning
    • may solve specific problems but doesn't improve org's capacity to improve self
  23. Self-design strategy
    • involves multiple stakeholders
    • innovation on site
    • learning by doing
    • continuous change, improvement, learning
    • part of normal operations
  24. high-performing orgs
    • structure: flat and lean
    • work design: self-managed teams
    • info systems: open and distributed
    • leadership: visionary
    • decision-making: employee empowerment
    • training and development: continuous
    • selection processes: culture driven
    • rewards: performance and skill-based
    • culture: strong and egalitarian
    • work force accommodations: plentiful
  25. Task conflict
    • conflicts over content and goals of the work
    • low-to-moderate levels are functional
  26. Relationship conflict
    • conflict based on relationships
    • almost always dysfunctional
  27. Process conflict
    • conflict over how work gets done
    • low levels are functional
  28. A few conflict resolution techniques
    • problem solving
    • avoidance
    • compromise
    • communication
  29. Outcomes of functional conflict
    • increased group performance
    • improved quality of decisions
    • stimulation of creativity and innovation
    • provision of a medium for problem-solving
  30. Outcomes of dysfunctional conflic
    • reduced group effectiveness
    • reduced communication
    • reduced group cohesiveness
  31. Distributive bargaining
    • get as much of the pie as possible
    • win-lose
    • focus on positions
    • low info sharing
    • short-term relationships
  32. Integrative bargaining
    • expand the whole pie/everyone's share
    • win-win
    • focus on interest
    • high info sharing
    • long-term relationships
  33. BATNA
    • Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement
    • = the lowest acceptable outcome to an individual for a negotiated agreement; the bottom line

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