Psycology 100

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lopez294
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219550
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Psycology 100
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2013-05-14 06:45:42
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Final Exam Study Guide
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  1. The four stages of Piaget's cognitive development model are
    _____.
    • "sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal
    • operational"
  2. The process of translating information into neural language
    that will be retained in memory is called _____.
    encoding
  3. "The study of how other people influence our thoughts,
    feelings, and actions is called _____."
    Social Psychology
  4. Sensation is the process of _____ raw sensory data from the
    internal and external world and transmitting it to the brain
    receiving and translating
  5. "We misjudge the causes of another person's behavior
    because we overestimate internal, personal factors and underestimate external,
    situational influences. This is called_____."
    the fundamental attribution error
  6. _____ parents set firm limits, encourage increasing
    levels of responsibility, and are sensitive and caring toward their children,
    whereas _____ parents value unquestioning obedience and mature responsibility,
    and remain detached and aloof from their children
    Authoritative; authoritarian
  7. Abnormal behavior is defined as _____.
    • a. "a pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or
    • action that causes personal distress, or violates social norms"

    • b. "a pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or
    • action that results in a disability or dysfunction"

    • c. "a statistically infrequent pattern of pathological
    • emotion, thought, or action "

    • d. all
    • of these options
  8. _____ refers to the desire to perform an act for its own
    sake whereas _____ refers to the desire to perform an act because of external
    rewards or the avoidance of punishment
    Intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
  9. Prejudice is _____; discrimination is _____.
    an attitude; a behavior
  10. "An individual's relatively stable and enduring pattern
    of thoughts, feelings, and actions is known as his or her _____."
    personality
  11. The two main types of mood disorders are _____.
    major depression and bipolar disorder
  12. A conditioned emotional response is an emotion that is
    _____.
    evoked by a previously neutral stimulus
  13. The ability to empathize with others and distinguish between
    right and wrong is called _____.
    morality
  14. _____ is the body's tendency to maintain a relatively stable
    state for internal processes
    Homeostasis
  15. Chemical messengers that are released by axons and stimulate
    dendrites on another neuron are called _____.
    neurotransmitters
  16. This is the name of the bundle of nerve fibers that carries
    information between the brain's right and left hemispheres.
    corpus callosum
  17. The belief that adult personality reflects how an individual
    has met or resolved the challenges and crises that occur in eight stages of
    development is the definition of _____.
    • Erikson's
    • psychosocial stages of development
  18. A research design studying the relationship between
    marijuana and a decrease in motivation would be an example of
    ________________________.
    correlational research
  19. This is an outdated brain operation in which nerve pathways
    between the frontal lobe and the thalamus and hypothalamus are cut in hopes of
    treating psychological disorders
    lobotomy
  20. _____
    refers to ""split mind,"" while _____ refers to
    ""split personality
    Schizophrenia;dissociative identity disorder
  21. The classification system produced by the American
    Psychiatric Association and used to describe abnormal behaviors is called the
    DSM-IV-TR. DSM is an abbreviation for _____.
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    • Disorders
  22. This is listening with total attention by reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying
    active listening
  23. The interdisciplinary field that studies how biological
    processes relate to behavioral and mental processes is called _____.
    neuroscience
  24. The central nervous system _____.
    consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  25. Motivation is BEST defined as
    _____.
    • the set of factors that activate, direct, and
    • maintain behavior toward a goal
  26. _____ is the number of complete
    wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.
    frequency
  27. The trait theory that explains personality in terms of openness, conscientiousness,
    extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism is called the _____."
    Five-Factor model
  28. This is an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience
    memory
  29. As one reduces caloric intake
    there is a corresponding reduction in weight. This is an example of a
    _______________.
    positive correlation
  30. The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory data into usable
    mental representations of the world is called _____."
    perception
  31. Reinforcement and punishment are
    defined in terms of _____.
    whether they increase or decrease responses that follow
  32. "According to Freud, the thoughts and information that you are currently aware of, or remembering, is
    called your _____."
    Conscious
  33. This lobe is involved in the perception of shape, color, and motion
    occipital
  34. The three storage systems
    included in the traditional memory model are _____.
    sensory, short-term, and long-term
  35. Green Pharmaceutical is doing
    experimental research to determine if their new drug reduces cholesterol. The
    ____________ group would receive the cholesterol reducing drug.
    experimental
  36. This is characterized by an intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific
    object or situation
    phobia
  37. Cognitive therapists assume that problem behaviors and emotions are caused by _____.
    faulty thought processes and beliefs
  38. A cultural rule of behavior that
    prescribes what is acceptable or unacceptable in a given situation is called a
    _____.
    norm
  39. The smallest magnitude of a particular stimulus energy that can be detected is called its _____ threshold
    absolute
  40. The nature vs. nurture controversy is a debate about the effects of _____________ on behavior.
    genetics and environment
  41. The Rorschach inkblot test and
    the Thematic Apperception Test are examples of _____ tests
    projective personality
  42. A relatively stable and
    consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone is known as a(n)
    _____.
    trait
  43. Information processing that
    begins with raw sensory data and ends with analysis in the brain is called
    _____.
    bottom-up
  44. Developmental psychology _____.
    • examines maturation, early experiences,
    • and various stages of development
  45. _____ research studies
    several groups of individuals at various ages, at one point in time, and
    provides information regarding _____.
    Cross-sectional; age differences
  46. What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist?
    "Psychiatrists have a medical degree; psychologists have a PhD, PsyD or EdD."
  47. The system of psychotherapy
    developed by Freud that seeks to bring unconscious conflicts into conscious
    awareness is known as _____.
    psychoanalysis
  48. The two factors in Schachter's
    theory of emotion are _____.
    physical arousal and cognitive labeling
  49. A relatively permanent change in
    behavior or mental processes as a result of practice or experience is called
    _____.
    learning
  50. This theory says that people are
    motivated to make attitudinal changes when they experience tension after or
    between their attitudes and their behaviors becoming aware of inconsistencies
    between their attitudes
    Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory
  51. "In Pavlov's original
    classical conditioning experiments, the _____ was the neutral stimulus, the
    _____ was the stimulus that would elicit a reflex, and _____ was the reflexive
    response"
    bell; meat powder; salivation
  52. "When five-month old Jessica
    learns that mommy continues to exist even when she is quietly resting in
    another room, Jessica has developed _____."
    object permanence
  53. The learning of an association
    between an environmental stimulus and a behavioral response is known as _____.
    conditioning
  54. Emotion is BEST defined as _____.
    • a subjective feeling that includes arousal,
    • cognitions, and behavioral expressions"
  55. _____ therapy helps clients to
    adjust their affective or emotional experiences in order to maximize personal
    growth
    Humanistic
  56. "_____ refers to
    ""split mind,"" while _____ refers to ""split
    personality."""
    Schizophrenia; dissociative identity disorder
  57. This is characterized by an intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific
    object or situation
    phobia
  58. A flashbulb memory is one in
    which _____.
    vivid images are associated with a suprising or strongly emotional event
  59. "In a computer model of
    memory, _____ would happen at the keyboard, _____ on the monitor, and _____ on
    the hard drive"
    "encoding, retrieval, storage"

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