Nutrition - Part 2
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Nutrition - Part 2
Nutrition - Part 2
Name some (semi-processed) whole foods
Why are whole foods better than processed foods
-processing may decrease nutritional value by:
-removing parts of whole foods
-adding trans fats, sugars, etc
What is the diff b/n whole grain and whole wheat and what does the wheat germ contain?
: all part used in same proportions of the original kernal
: up to 5% of the kernel can be removed
: protein, fibre, both essential fatty acids, more
Contrast table salt to unrefined sea salt
unrefined: 84% sodium chloride, lots of minerals
table: way more iodine, may have more or less NaCl
List some common nutrient deficiencies in NA (vitamins and 6 others)
-Vitamins A, B6, C, D, E, K
What is there an excess of in the NA diet?
-high GI carbs
What to look for in a healthy meal?
-2 servings of fruits and veggies
List 4 key recommendations from the Canada food guide
7-10 servings of fruits and veggies
6-8 servings grain products
2 servings of dairy
2-3 servings meat
Recommended safe limits on drinking
: <= 2 drinks/day
: <= 1 drink/day
"I want to quit drinking coffee, but when I do I get terrible headaches"
Define food security
limited or uncertain avail. of nutritionally adequate foods, or uncertain methods of acquiring foods
List 4 threats to food system sustainability
1) fuel prices
2) climate change
3) water supplies
4) soil fertility
What oxidative stress and chronic inflammation linked to?
list some examples of anti-oxidant defences
-vitamins (Vit C and Vit E are the major ones)
-AAs, proteins, peptides
What is ORAC and what are some examples of food with high ORAC?
Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
: cloves, oregano, rosemary, tumeric
-blueberries, chokecherries, etc
List 4 health benefits to being a vegetarian and why these benefits exist
1) lower cholesterol
2) lower BP
3) lower body weight
4) lower risk of dying from heart disease
lower intake of saturated fats, more fruits, veggies, nuts, whole grains
Describe the Mediterranean diet
Daily consumption of fruits and veggies
whole grain breads
extra virgin olive oil
moderate consumption of fish, poultry, nuts
low red meat consumption
moderate red wine
Describe the Okinawan diet
fish 2-3 times a week
Low calorie intake
In what way does the Okinawan diet resemble the Mediterranean diet? How does it differ?
resemble: lots of veggies, some fish, mainly whole foods
differ: Okinawan diet is low fat, contains little dairy and fruit, and contains soy foods
A patient with a FHx of heart disease tells you they try to stick to a low fat diet
-low fat not necessarily better for heart disease, e.g. Mediterranean diet is high fat (omega 3 and monounsaturated)
-make sure he isn't supplementing the low fat with high GI carbs
-persuade him to eat more omega 3 fat
What influences BMR?
-% fat (higher lowers BMR)
What are the 4 major components of a portfolio diet?
-plant sterols (whole grains, bran, legumes, others)
You measure the blood lipids of an overweight 62 year old man and find he has elevated LDL levels
-increase soluble fibre intake
-use margarine with plant sterols
-have almonds for a snack
-have fatty fish
What are the 4 stages on an elimination diet?
4) review and diet planning
what nutritional deficiencies contribute to depression?
A mother of a 18 month old, underweight child tells you, “Milk gives her diarrhea, so we just give her water or apple juice.”
-probably lactose intolerant
-fruit juice is NOT an adequate subs for milk
-screen for celiac disease
-try fortified soy milk
Name some (5) micronutrients involved in DNA stability
Define nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics
nutrigenetics: how gene variants influence nutritional requirements
nutrigenomics: how contents in food affect gene function
What are the 4 parts of a food label
-manufacturers name, address, phone #
On a nutrition label, what are the daily values for sodium, iron, and calcium
: 2400 mg
: 1100 mg
: 14 mg
Who is at increase risk for food-borne illness?
-adults > 60
-pregnant women (mildly immunosuppressed)
-other people with weakened immune systems
"I'm trying to quit coffee, but when I do I get a terrible headache"
-why are they quitting coffee?
-coffee does have some health benefits
-better to slowly wean yourself off
"is drinking reverse osmosis water going to make me deficient in minerals?"
-usually not a major source of minerals in NA, but can be
-better to get a reverse osmosis filter that re-adds minerals
proportion of an ingested nutrient that is absorbed and utilized
Who is an increased risk for nutrient-drug interactions?
-patients on multiple medications
-patients on long-term medications
-chronically ill patients
A patient you are seeing is on long term
corticosteroids because of having a heart lung transplant. What nutritional
advice would you offer her?
-osteoporosis is a big concern
-make sure she is getting enough Ca++ and vit D
-weight bearing exercise with adequate fruit and veggies intake
Woman wants to go off oral contraceptive because she is so moody when she takes it
-OC can cause vitamin deficiencies
-decreases folate levels by as much as 40%
-could explore other contraceptive methods or get her on a good multivitamin
What to look for in a multivitamin
-vit A (<2300-3000 IU) and/or beta carotine
-RDA of all (8) B vitamins
: 70-90 mg
: >600 IU
-Vit E 15 IU
: RDA, Zn:Cu ratio should be 10:1
-iron for women, and runners
Describe some core (go-to) supplements
-Vit D (1000 IU)
-a good, balanced multivitamin
-additional calcium/magnesium as needed with meals
-essential fatty acids if fish not eaten 2-3 times a week
What are the dirty dozen foods?
3) Bell pepper