Nutrition - Part 2

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jonas112
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Nutrition - Part 2
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2013-05-15 16:23:16
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Nutrition - Part 2
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  1. Name some (semi-processed) whole foods
    • -cheese
    • -yogurt
    • -milk
    • -tofu
    • -soymilk
  2. Why are whole foods better than processed foods
    • -processing may decrease nutritional value by:
    •   -removing parts of whole foods
    •   -heating
    •   -adding trans fats, sugars, etc
  3. What is the diff b/n whole grain and whole wheat and what does the wheat germ contain?
    • whole grain: all part used in same proportions of the original kernal
    • whole wheat: up to 5% of the kernel can be removed
    • wheat germ: protein, fibre, both essential fatty acids, more
  4. Contrast table salt to unrefined sea salt
    unrefined: 84% sodium chloride, lots of minerals

    table: way more iodine, may have more or less NaCl
  5. List some common nutrient deficiencies in NA (vitamins and 6 others)
    • -Vitamins A, B6, C, D, E, K
    • -Calcium
    • -Fibre
    • -Omega 3
    • -magnesium
    • -potassium
    • -Iron
    • -others
  6. What is there an excess of in the NA diet?
    • -trans fats
    • -saturated fats
    • -omega 6
    • -sodium
    • -phosphorus
    • -high GI carbs
  7. What to look for in a healthy meal?
    • -colourful, flavourful
    • -2 servings of fruits and veggies
    • -adequate calories
    • -nutrient density
    • -others
  8. List 4 key recommendations from the Canada food guide
    • 7-10 servings of fruits and veggies
    • 6-8 servings grain products
    • 2 servings of dairy
    • 2-3 servings meat
  9. Recommended safe limits on drinking
    • men: <= 2 drinks/day
    • women: <= 1 drink/day
  10. "I want to quit drinking coffee, but when I do I get terrible headaches"
  11. Define food security
    limited or uncertain avail. of nutritionally adequate foods, or uncertain methods of acquiring foods
  12. List 4 threats to food system sustainability
    • 1) fuel prices
    • 2) climate change
    • 3) water supplies
    • 4) soil fertility
  13. What oxidative stress and chronic inflammation linked to?
    • -aging
    • -arthritis
    • -cancer
    • -CV disease
    • -diabetes
    • -others
  14. list some examples of anti-oxidant defences
    • -vitamins (Vit C and Vit E are the major ones)
    • -omega 3
    • -AAs, proteins, peptides
    • -phytochemicals
    • -minerals
    • -enzymes
  15. What is ORAC and what are some examples of food with high ORAC?
    • Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
    • -spices: cloves, oregano, rosemary, tumeric
    • -blueberries, chokecherries, etc
  16. List 4 health benefits to being a vegetarian and why these benefits exist
    • 1) lower cholesterol
    • 2) lower BP
    • 3) lower body weight
    • 4) lower risk of dying from heart disease

    lower intake of saturated fats, more fruits, veggies, nuts, whole grains
  17. Describe the Mediterranean diet
    • Daily consumption of fruits and veggies
    • whole grain breads
    • extra virgin olive oil
    • moderate consumption of fish, poultry, nuts
    • low red meat consumption
    • moderate red wine
  18. Describe the Okinawan diet
    • veggies
    • whole grains
    • soy foods
    • fish 2-3 times a week
    • tumeric tea
    • Low calorie intake
  19. In what way does the Okinawan diet resemble the Mediterranean diet? How does it differ?
    resemble: lots of veggies, some fish, mainly whole foods

    differ: Okinawan diet is low fat, contains little dairy and fruit, and contains soy foods
  20. A patient with a FHx of heart disease tells you they try to stick to a low fat diet
    • -low fat not necessarily better for heart disease, e.g. Mediterranean diet is high fat (omega 3 and monounsaturated)
    • -make sure he isn't supplementing the low fat with high GI carbs
    • -persuade him to eat more omega 3 fat
  21. What influences BMR?
    • -gender
    • -age
    • -genetics
    • -% fat (higher lowers BMR)
    • -others
  22. What are the 4 major components of a portfolio diet?
    • -soluble fibre
    • -nuts
    • -soy
    • -plant sterols (whole grains, bran, legumes, others)
  23. You measure the blood lipids of an overweight 62 year old man and find he has elevated LDL levels
    • -increase soluble fibre intake
    • -use margarine with plant sterols
    • -have almonds for a snack
    • -have fatty fish
    • -others
  24. What are the 4 stages on an elimination diet?
    • 1) planning
    • 2) elimination
    • 3) Challenge
    • 4) review and diet planning
  25. what nutritional deficiencies contribute to depression?
    • -omega 3
    • -B vitamins
    • -vit D
  26. A mother of a 18 month old, underweight child tells you, “Milk gives her diarrhea, so we just give her water or apple juice.”
    • -probably lactose intolerant
    • -fruit juice is NOT an adequate subs for milk
    • -screen for celiac disease
    • -try fortified soy milk
  27. Name some (5) micronutrients involved in DNA stability
    • -Vit C
    • -Vit E
    • -Vit B12
    • -riboflavin
    • -folate
  28. Define nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics
    nutrigenetics: how gene variants influence nutritional requirements

    nutrigenomics: how contents in food affect gene function
  29. What are the 4 parts of a food label
    • -ingredients list
    • -nutrition label
    • -food allergens
    • -manufacturers name, address, phone #
  30. On a nutrition label, what are the daily values for sodium, iron, and calcium
    • sodium: 2400 mg
    • calcium: 1100 mg
    • iron: 14 mg
  31. Who is at increase risk for food-borne illness?
    • -infants
    • -children
    • -adults > 60
    • -pregnant women (mildly immunosuppressed)
    • -other people with weakened immune systems
  32. "I'm trying to quit coffee, but when I do I get a terrible headache"
    • -why are they quitting coffee?
    • -coffee does have some health benefits
    • -better to slowly wean yourself off
  33. "is drinking reverse osmosis water going to make me deficient in minerals?"
    • -usually not a major source of minerals in NA, but can be
    • -better to get a reverse osmosis filter that re-adds minerals
  34. define bioavailability
    proportion of an ingested nutrient that is absorbed and utilized
  35. Who is an increased risk for nutrient-drug interactions?
    • -patients on multiple medications
    • -patients on long-term medications
    • -chronically ill patients
    • -older adults
  36. A patient you are seeing is on long term
    corticosteroids because of having a heart lung transplant. What nutritional
    advice would you offer her?
    • -osteoporosis is a big concern
    • -make sure she is getting enough Ca++ and vit D
    • -weight bearing exercise with adequate fruit and veggies intake
  37. Woman wants to go off oral contraceptive because she is so moody when she takes it
    • -OC can cause vitamin deficiencies
    • -decreases folate levels by as much as 40%
    • -could explore other contraceptive methods or get her on a good multivitamin
  38. What to look for in a multivitamin
    • -vit A (<2300-3000 IU) and/or beta carotine
    • -RDA of all (8) B vitamins
    • -vit C: 70-90 mg
    • -vit D3: >600 IU
    • -Vit E 15 IU
    • -Minerals: RDA, Zn:Cu ratio should be 10:1
    • -iron for women, and runners
  39. Describe some core (go-to) supplements
    • -Vit D (1000 IU)
    • -a good, balanced multivitamin
    • -additional calcium/magnesium as needed with meals
    • -essential fatty acids if fish not eaten 2-3 times a week
  40. What are the dirty dozen foods?
    • 1) peach
    • 2) apples
    • 3) Bell pepper
    • 4) Celery
    • 5) Nectarine
    • 6) Strawberries
    • 7) Cherries
    • 8) Kale
    • 9) Lettuce
    • 10) Grapes
    • 11) Carrot
    • 12) Pear

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