FOR 208 Soils- midterm review

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FOR 208 Soils- midterm review
2013-05-14 18:48:27

Notes from class-Jeopardy game-midterm review
Show Answers:

  1. What is the most limited soil nutrient?
    (N) Nitrogen
  2. What are the 3 most important Macronutrients?
    (NPK) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
  3. Explain:
    Primary Mineral
    Secondary Mineral
    Primary Mineral= derived from molten material

    Secondary Mineral= derived from primary minerals

    Rock= Concentrations of minerals
  4. What is CEC? Give equation.
    CEC= Cation Exchange Capacity

    Cmolc/Kg soil

    Colloids-clays or humus
  5. In wetlands, __________ conditions lead to ___________ iron and ___________ lead to _________iron.
    In wetlands, anaerobic conditions lead to reduced iron and aerobic conditions lead to oxidized iron.

    • Anaerobic=ferrous=Fe2+=green/gley
    • Aerobic=ferric=Fe3+=red
  6. What is the difference between transformation and translocation?
    Transformation= breakdown in particle size

    Translocation= movement within a soil profile
  7. Describe FEF, or Fine Earth Fraction.
    Fine Earth Fraction includes sand, silt and clay.

    Sand= 2mm to 0.05mm

    Silt= 0.05mm to 0.002mm

    Clay= less than 0.002mm
  8. What is the "B" Horizon?
    Zone of development or accumulation.
  9. How do you measure the density of soil using a scale, paraffin wax, and a beaker?
    • Weigh ped
    • Coat with wax
    • Weigh again
    • Measure displacement
    • Look up density of wax
    • Determine volume of wax based on density equation and weight of wax
    • Correct for volume effect of wax
  10. 1 Ml=   ?


  11. Which soil order has the most OM throughout its profile?
  12. What are sesquioxides?
    Aluminum and iron oxides
  13. What are the equations for:
    Density of water
    Particle Density
    Bulk Density
    DH2O= 1g/ml or 1.00g/cm3

    Dp= 2.65g/cm3

    Db= m/v
  14. What term is used for any biota mixing the soil?
  15. What are the 3 types of rock and how are they formed? Give an example of each.
    Igneous= Basalt= Volcanic

    Sedementary=Sandstone= Layering

    Metamorphic=Gneiss=Heat and pressure
  16. What PM can lead to platy soil structure?
    Lacustrine or marine
  17. How does water flow through:
    Sandy Loam?
    Silt Loam?
    Clay Loam?
    Sandy Loam: Good infiltration, low resistance

    Silt Loam: Medium infiltration, medium resistance

    Clay Loam: Low infiltration, High resistance/holds water tight when saturated
  18. What does the "E" stand for in "E" horizon?
    • Elluvial
    • (zone of loss)
  19. What terms are used to describe recognizable and unrecognizable concentrations of OM?
    Humus= unrecognizable

    Litter= recognizable
  20. What are the 4 major components of any soil?
    • Air
    • Water
    • Organics
    • Minerals
  21. Sand can break down into approximately how many clay particles?
    1 billion, or 10^9
  22. What is the difference between:
    Disintegration= physical breakdown

    Decomposition= Chemical breakdown
  23. How many soil orders are there? Name some.
    12 orders:

    • Gelisols - soils with permafrost within 2 m of the surface
      Histosols - organic soils
      Spodosols - acid forest soils with a subsurface accumulation of metal-humus complexes
      Andisols - soils formed in volcanic ash
      Oxisols - intensely weathered soils of tropical and subtropical environments
      Vertisols - clayey soils with high shrink/swell capacity
      Aridisols - CaCO3-containing soils of arid environments with subsurface horizon development
      Ultisols - strongly leached soils with a subsurface zone of clay accumulation and <35% base saturation
      Mollisols - grassland soils with high base status
      Alfisols - moderately leached soils with a subsurface zone of clay accumulation and >35% base saturation
      Inceptisols - soils with weakly developed subsurface horizons
      Entisols - soils with little or no morphological development
  24. What is the chemical reaction between HCI and calcium carbonate called?