FOR 208 Soils- midterm review
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What is the most limited soil nutrient?
What are the 3 most important Macronutrients?
(NPK) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
Primary Mineral= derived from molten material
Secondary Mineral= derived from primary minerals
Rock= Concentrations of minerals
What is CEC? Give equation.
CEC= Cation Exchange Capacity
Colloids-clays or humus
In wetlands, __________ conditions lead to ___________ iron and ___________ lead to _________iron.
In wetlands, anaerobic
conditions lead to reduced
iron and aerobic
conditions lead to oxidized
What is the difference between transformation and translocation?
Transformation= breakdown in particle size
Translocation= movement within a soil profile
Describe FEF, or Fine Earth Fraction.
Fine Earth Fraction includes sand, silt and clay.
Sand= 2mm to 0.05mm
Silt= 0.05mm to 0.002mm
Clay= less than 0.002mm
What is the "B" Horizon?
Zone of development or accumulation.
How do you measure the density of soil using a scale, paraffin wax, and a beaker?
- Weigh ped
- Coat with wax
- Weigh again
- Measure displacement
- Look up density of wax
- Determine volume of wax based on density equation and weight of wax
- Correct for volume effect of wax
Which soil order has the most OM throughout its profile?
What are sesquioxides?
Aluminum and iron oxides
What are the equations for:
Density of water
DH2O= 1g/ml or 1.00g/cm3
What term is used for any biota mixing the soil?
What are the 3 types of rock and how are they formed? Give an example of each.
Igneous= Basalt= Volcanic
Metamorphic=Gneiss=Heat and pressure
What PM can lead to platy soil structure?
Lacustrine or marine
How does water flow through:
Sandy Loam: Good infiltration, low resistance
Silt Loam: Medium infiltration, medium resistance
Clay Loam: Low infiltration, High resistance/holds water tight when saturated
What does the "E" stand for in "E" horizon?
What terms are used to describe recognizable and unrecognizable concentrations of OM?
What are the 4 major components of any soil?
Sand can break down into approximately how many clay particles?
1 billion, or 10^9
What is the difference between:
Disintegration= physical breakdown
Decomposition= Chemical breakdown
How many soil orders are there? Name some.
What is the chemical reaction between HCI and calcium carbonate called?
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