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what is the Main task of respiratory system
•to maintain a constant pressure for speech production.
what happens during speech
–Decrease in lung volume.
–Subglottal pressure stays constant.
–Flow stays constant.
–Relaxation pressures change
–Actively initiated by contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostals.
–Rest breathing: passive forces cause expiration (return to rest position).
–Speech: inspiratory and/or expiratory muscles are likely to be used to control and cause expiration.
when are muscular forces active in the speech process?
•inspiratory and expiratory muscle forces are active throughout speech breathing.
–More efficient way to handle muscle activation.
what do inspiratory muscles do?
–Provide a checking action when lung volume is high to slow the descent of the rib cage.
•Work against the recoil pressures
what do expiratory muscles do?
–Abdominal muscles are active throughout breathing to support the respiratory system.
•Provide maximal advantage for movement of the rib cage, so expiration of the rib cage does not cause expansion of the abdomen (which would reduce the force of rib cage expiration).
•Abdominal muscles contract at rest to held place the diaphragm at its physiologic rest length.
–The length at which the diaphragm can contract most quickly and most strongly.
–Contract during expiration to generate pressure for speech.
•Without inspiratory muscles, what can a person not do?
•Without expiratory muscles, what can a person not do?
at different lung volumes, what is going on with muscular forces?
differential effects, response depends on the degree to which the thorax is compressed
•Even though the applied muscular forces are identical, you will not be able to compress the thorax as much at low lung volumes.
what is the most efficient volume range for comfortable speech?
•Mid lung volume range used for speech at comfortable intensity level.
•Initiate speech at about 45-60% VC.
•Terminate at or slightly below EEL (35% VC).
–Women and children usually slightly below EEL.
–Men usually at EEL.
–Maximum efficiency with minimum effort
benefits of mid volume range:
•Mechanism takes advantage of relaxation pressures – positive recoil pressures.
•Little checking action required.
•Expiratory passive force working in same direction as active force.
–Lung-thorax unit wants to compress to move toward rest.
if below EEL, what happens?
- recoil pressure are negative lung-thorax unit wants to expand to rest
- must use more muscular force to overcome the
- negative recoil forces
if have high lv (lung volume) then what happens?
- more recoil pressure than needed for comfortable intensity speech
- must use more inspiratory muscular force to slow
- the compression of the lung thorax unit
what happens when high intensity or loud speech is produced?
- higher subglottal pressure required
- inhale to a higher lung volume before speaking
- -greater recoil pressures
- -less muscular pressure required to
- obtain the higher subglottal pressure required
tracks the movements of the ribcage and abdomen during speech
relative volume contribution:
what happens during speech?
- lung volume decreases
- both ribcage and abdominal systems are responsible
- for that decrease
- change in LV
- can be attributed to the rib cage, as opposed to the abdomen