Resp Physiology

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Author:
jacwill
ID:
219713
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Resp Physiology
Updated:
2013-05-14 23:45:34
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resp physio csd 2013 spurill
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resp physio, csd 2013, spurill
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  1. pressure
    force per unit area cmH2O
  2. what does gas have
    • pressure
    • Molecules move and collide into one another and the walls of the container they are in.
  3. Gas pressure
    •the sum of the forces of collision divided by the area of the container’s walls.
  4. Pressure differential
    –change in pressure across containers.
  5. alveolar, pleural and abdominal pressure
    •Alveolar pressure – pressure within the lungs.

    •Pleural pressure – pressure within the pleural space.

    •Abdominal pressure – pressure within the abdominal cavity.
  6. boyle's law
    • when volume inside lungs is low, the pressure is high (expiration)
    • when volume inside lungs is high, the pressure is low (inspiration)
    • always looking for balance

    –Alveolar pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure  (INSPIRATION)

    –Alveolar pressure is GREATER than atmospheric pressure (EXPIRATION)
  7. when pressure is increased...
    airflow is increased as well
  8. A=L/S
    –Volume (L), Changes (sec) = Airflow = l/s
  9. how are volumes and capacities within the lungs measured
    • spirometer,
    • all volumes are measured directly except for residual volume which is computed
    • all capacities are a combo of 2 or more volumes
  10. Tidal volume
    volume of air exchanged during rest breathing
  11. Inspiratory reserve volume
    •maximum volume of air which can be inspired after a tidal inspiration.
  12. inspiratory reserve volume
    •maximum volume of air which can be inspired after a tidal inspiration.
  13. Expiratory reserve volume
    •maximum volume of air which can be expired after a tidal expiration.
  14. Residual volume
    amount of air left in the lungs after a maximum expiration
  15. Total Lung Capacity
    •: total amount of air which can be held in the lungs (all volumes added together).
  16. Inspiratory Capacity
    •maximum volume of air which can be inspired after a tidal expiration (tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume).
  17. Vital Capacity
    •maximum amount of air which can be inspired after a maximal expiration (tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume OR total lung capacity – residual volume).

    –Often express lung volume in terms of %VC
  18. Functional Residual Capacity
    •amount of air in lungs after a tidal expiration (expiratory reserve volume + residual volume).
  19. what is eel?  describe it.
    • END EXPIRATORY LEVEL
    • important ref point in resp physiology
    • lung volume measured at the rest point of resp-at the end of a tidal volume expiration at the top of FRC
  20. How is EEL dif from REL?
    Different from REL.  REL is the actual physiologic point; EEL is the measurement of that point (differs slightly
  21. What must happen in order to change alveolar pressure?
    the lungs must be expanded or contracted
  22. two ways in which the lungs are expanded or contracted:
    • recoil of the lung-thorax unit (passive)
    • muscle force (active)

    how these mechanisms are used depends on the volume of air in the lungs
  23. what are inspiration and expiration always caused by?
    • INS
    • always caused by active muscle forces

    • EXP
    • is passive during rest breathing
    • is a mix of active and passive forces during speech
  24. what are the lungs and the thorax considered to be?
    • they are elastic they resist being deformed from rest
    • they also exert a force to return to rest-elastic recoil force
    • they have individual rest positions
  25. what happens if the lungs and thorax are uncoupled from each other?
    • the lungs deflate to their rest position fully deflated (0% VC)
    • the rib cage moves to its rest position-partially inflated (55%VC)
    • when coupled the rest position (at REL) is 35-40%VC
  26. what are recoil pressures?
    • pressures within the lung and are a source of power for the speech system
    • recoil forces are proportional to the amount of distortion
  27. what are active pressures generated by?
    inspiratory and expiratory muscles
  28. net pressures
    all of the pressure put together, active and passive forces

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