medical Terminology final.txt

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medical Terminology final.txt
2013-05-15 05:08:49
psch phar radiology

Chapters 20,21,22
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  1. BMT
    bone marrow transplant
  2. bx
  3. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  4. METS
  5. TNM
    tumor, nodes, metastases
  6. ac
    before meals
  7. bid
    twice daily (2 times a day)
  8. sig
    directions on how to take medication
  9. LSD
    lysergic acid diethylamide
  10. SAD
    seasonal affective disorder
  11. alveol/o
  12. cac/o
  13. cry/o
  14. fung/i
  15. mutagen/o
    causing genetic change
  16. ple/o
    many, more
  17. blastoma
    immature tumor
  18. follicul/o
    small glandular sacs
  19. cras/o
  20. prurit/o
  21. phil/o
    attraction to, love
  22. phren/o
    mind; diaphragm
  23. psych/o
  24. schiz/o
  25. somat/o
  26. Additive action
    drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each.
  27. Contraindications
    factors that prevent the use of a drug or treatment
  28. Idiosyncrasy
    abnormal, unexpected effect of a drug that is peculiar to an individual.
  29. Medicinal chemistry
    study of new drug synthesis; a relationship between chemical structure and biological effects.
  30. Pharmacodynamics
    study of effects and strength of a drug within the body.
  31. Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR)
    Reference book that lists drug products
  32. Side effect
    adverse reaction, usually minor, that routinely results from the use of a drug.
  33. Tolerance
    larger and larger drug dose must be given to achieve the desired effect. The patient becomes resistant to the action of a drug as treatment progresses.
  34. Toxicity
    harmful effects of a drug.
  35. Vitamin
    a substance found in foods and is essential in small quantities for growth and good health.
  36. Antibiotic
    a chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, which has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body.
  37. Antidepressant
    relieves symptoms of depression.
  38. Antiemetic
    prevents nausea and vomiting.
  39. Barbiturate
    sleeping pills
  40. Cardiotonic
    pertaining to conditioning of the heart
  41. Affect
    external expression of emotion, or emotional response.
  42. Bipolar disorder
    a mood disorder with alternating periods of mania and depression.
  43. Bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder with binge eating followed by vomiting, purging, and depression.
  44. Ego
    central coordinating branch of the personality or mind.
  45. Id
    major unconscious part of the personality; energy from instinctual drives and desires.
  46. Paraphilia
    recurrent intense sexual urge, fantasy or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities, or situations.
  47. Psychosis
    a disorder marked by loss of contact with reality, often with delusions and hallucinations.
  48. Kleptomania
    obsession with stealing.
  49. Xenophobia
    fear of strangers
  50. Cyclothymia
    alternating periods of hypomania and depression.
  51. Alcohol
    Signs of alcohol dependence and intoxication include slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impairment in attention or memory, stupor, or coma. It also is associated with depression, as either a cause of a consequence of the drinking.
  52. Amphetamines
    Psychological and behavioral changes associated with amphetamine dependence include anger, tension or anxiety, impaired judgment, inability to enjoy what was previously pleasurable, and social isolation. Physical signs include tachycardia or bradycardia, papillary dilation, nausea, elevated or low blood pressure, and muscular weakness.
  53. Cannabis
    Signs and symptoms after the smoking of cannabis include euphoria, impaired motor coordination, anxiety, sensation of slowed time, social withdrawal, and impaired memory and judgment. Other signs of cannabis intoxication are increased appetite dry mouth, tachycardia, and paranoia.
  54. Cocaine
    A stimulant drug that produces euphoria as well as vasoconstriction, tachycardia, and hypertension. The form most commonly used in the US is cocaine hydrochloride powder, which is inhaled through the nostrils and then absorbed into the bloodstream through mucous membranes.
  55. Hallucinogens
    These drugs produce a state of central nervous system excitement, hyperactivity, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, and mood changes. The use of hallucinogens generally is episodic because their psychoactive effects are highly potent; frequent use may lead to marked tolerance.
  56. Opioids
    Typically prescribed as painkillers or cough suppressants, opioid intoxication signs are papillary construction, euphoria, slowness in movement, drowsiness, and slurred speech. Effects of overdose are slow and shallow breathing, convulsions, coma, and possible death.
  57. Sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics
    These drugs have a soothing, relaxing, euphoric effect and also can produce sleep. Intoxicate is characterized by slurred speech and disorientation and sudden cessation of these drugs can result in seizures.
  58. Psychological dependence
    a compulsion to continue taking a drug despite adverse consequences
  59. Physical dependence
    characterized by the onset of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued abruptly.
  60. Tolerance
    the declining effect of the drug so that the dose must be increased to give the same effect
  61. Amnesia
    loss of memory
  62. Anxiety
    uneasiness with palpitations, tightness in chest, breathlessness, and chocking sensation
  63. Apathy
    absence of emotions, lack of interest, emotional involvement, or motivation.
  64. Compulsion
    uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
  65. Conversion
    anxiety becomes a bodily symptom, such as blindness, deafness, or paralysis, that doesn’t have a physical basis.
  66. Delusion
    a fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence.
  67. Dissociation
    uncomfortable feelings are separated from their real object in order to avoid mental distress, the feelings are redirected towards a second object or behavior pattern.
  68. Dysphoria
    Sadness, hopelessness; depressive mood, or feeling “low.”
  69. Euphoria
    Exaggerated feeling of well-being (“high”).
  70. Hallucination
    False or unreal sensory perception as, for example, hearing voices when none are present; an illusion is a false perception of an actual sensory stimulus.
  71. Cognitive behavioral therapy
    Relatively short-term, focused psychotherapy for a wide range of psychological problems. The focus is on how the person who is experiencing difficulty is thinking, behaving, and communicating today, rather than on early childhood experiences.
  72. Family therapy
    Treatment of an entire family can help the members resolve and understand their conflicts and problems.
  73. Group therapy
    In a group with a health professional leader as a neutral moderator, pate
  74. Hypnosis
    A trance (state of altered consciousness) is created to help recovery of deeply repressed memories.
  75. Psychodrama
    Patients express their feeling by acting out family and social roles along with other patient-actors on a stage. After a scene has been presented, the audience is asked to make comments and offer interpretations about what they have observed.
  76. Insight-oriented psychotherapy
    Uses face-to-face discussion of life problems and associated feelings. The aim is to increase understanding of underlying themes, thoughts, and behavior patterns to improve mood.
  77. Play therapy
    The child uses play with toys to express conflicts and feelings that he or she is unable to communicate in a direct manner.
  78. Psychoanalysis
    a long-term and intense form of psychotherapy which seeks to influence behavior and resolve internal conflicts by allowing a patient to bring their unconscious emotion to the surface through techniques like free association transference, and dream interpretation.
  79. Sex therapy
    a form of therapy that can help people overcome sexual dysfunctions such as frigidity, impotence, and premature ejaculation.
  80. Supportive psychotherapy
    The therapist offers encouragement, support, and hope; to patients facing difficult life transitions and events.
  81. Ability to cause exposure of a photographic plate
    If a photographic plate is placed in front of a beam of x-rays, the x-rays, traveling unimpeded through the air, will expose the silver coating of the plate and cause it to blacken.
  82. Ability to penetrate different substance to varying degrees
    X-rays pass through the different types of substances in the human body with varying ease. Air is the least dense substance and allows greatest transmission, fat is denser; water is next, followed by hard materials such as calcium in bone, which transmit the least.
  83. Invisibility
    X-rays cannot be detected by sight, sound, or touch. Workers exposed to x-rays must wear a film badge to detect and record the amount of radiation to which they have been exposed.
  84. Travel in straight lines
    This property allows the formation of precise shadow images on the x-ray plate and also permits x-ray beams to be directed accurately at tissue during radiotherapy.
  85. Scattering of radiation
    Scattering occurs when x-rays come into contact with any material. Greater scatter occurs with dense objects and less scatter with those substances that are radiolucent.
  86. Ionization
    X-rays have the ability to ionize substances through which they pass. The ionizing effect of high-energy x-ray in even small doses can affect normal body cells, leading to tissue damage and malignant changes.
  87. posteroanterior (PA) view
    most commonly requested chest x-ray view. X-ray travels from a posteriorly placed source to an anteriorly placed detector
  88. anteroposterior (AP) view
    x-rays travel from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector
  89. Lateral view
    x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient to a detector placed to the left of the patient
  90. Oblique view
    x-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular view. Shows region or structures ordinarily hidden and superimposed in routine PA and AP views.
  91. Oral administration
    drugs given by mouth are slowly absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach or intestinal wall.
  92. Sublingual administration
    drugs placed under the tongue dissolve in the saliva for rapid absorption.
  93. Parenteral administration
    injection of drugs from a syringe through a hollow needle placed under the skin, into a muscle, vein, or body cavity.
  94. Intradermal injection
    this shallow injection is made into the upper layers of the skin and is used chiefly in skin testing for allergic reactions.
  95. Subcutaneous (hypodermic) injection
    a hypodermic needle is introduced into the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, usually on the upper arm, thigh, or abdomen.
  96. Intramuscular injection
    the buttock or upper arm is the usual site for this injection into muscle.
  97. Intravenous injection
    this injection is given directly into a vein.
  98. Inhalation
    vapors, or gasses, taken into nose or mouth are absorbed into the bloodstream through the thin walls of air sacs in the lungs.
  99. Topical application
    drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body.
  100. Transdermal patches
    are used to deliver drugs continuously through the skin.