Biology Final

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Biology Final
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2013-05-20 09:06:22
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Biology Final
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  1. prokaryotes
    DNA is in the cytoplasm of the cell
  2. DNA is in the cytoplasm of the cell
    prokaryotes
  3. eukaryotes
    DNA is in the nucleus of the cell
  4. DNA is in the nucleus of the cell
    eukaryotes
  5. replication
    the process of DNA making a copy of itself
  6. the process of DNA making a copy of itself
    replication
  7. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    RNA copies the instructions for making proteins from DNA to the ribosome
  8. RNA copies the instructions for making proteins from DNA to the ribosome
    messenger RNA (mRNA)
  9. transcription
    when a nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  10. when a nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
    transcription
  11. in mRNA what a codon codes for
    amino acid
  12. amino acid
    in mRNA what a codon codes for
  13. mutation
    change in DNA or RNA
  14. change in DNA or RNA
    mutation
  15. deletion
    when a chromosome loses a section
  16. when a chromosome loses a section
    deletion
  17. differentiation
    why all cells have the same DNA, but a skin cell is a skin cell instead of a bone cell
  18. why all cells have the same DNA, but a skin cell is a skin cell instead of a bone cell
    differentiation
  19. hox gene
    gene that determines where each body part goes when an embryo is developing
  20. gene that determines where each body part goes when an embryo is developing
    hox gene
  21. mutations
    ultimate source of genetic variability
  22. ultimate source of genetic variability
    mutations
  23. genetic engineering
    making changes in the DNA of a living organism
  24. making changes in the DNA of a living organism
    genetic engineering
  25. gel electrophoresis
    process used to separate and analyze DNA
  26. process used to separate and analyze DNA
    gel electrophoresis
  27. recombinant DNA
    DNA molecules that have been made by combining the DNA from two different sources
  28. DNA molecules that have been made by combining the DNA from two different sources
    recombinant DNA
  29. plasmid
    the circular DNA found in some bacteria
  30. the circular DNA found in some bacteria
    plasmid
  31. transgenic organism
    organisms that contain genes from other species
  32. organisms that contain genes from other species
    transgenic organism
  33. Enzyme that joins complementary nucleotides during DNA replication
    DNA polymerase
  34. DNA polymerase
    Enzyme that joins complementary nucleotides during DNA replication
  35. allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation (like animals that are better hunters, better retrievers, or better companions)
    selective breeding
  36. selective breeding
    allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation (like animals that are better hunters, better retrievers, or better companions)
  37. one problem of inbreeding
    genetics defects (for example blindness or joint deformities in dogs)
  38. genetics defects (for example blindness or joint deformities in dogs)
    one problem of inbreeding
  39. genetic markers
    makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid and foreign DNA from those that just have the plasmid
  40. makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid and foreign DNA from those that just have the plasmid
    genetic markers
  41. how to know if DNA transformation is successful
    the recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell
  42. the recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell
    how to know if DNA transformation is successful
  43. Dolly (a sheep)
    name of first mammal that was successfully cloned
  44. name of first mammal that was successfully cloned
    Dolly (a sheep)
  45. 2 problems with cloned animals
    • genetic defects
    • health problems
  46. genetic defects
    health problems
    2 problems with cloned animals
  47. 46
    number of chromosomes in a human
  48. number of chromosomes in a human
    46
  49. What percent of human egg cells carry the X sex chromosome?
    100%
  50. What percent of sperm cells carry the Y sex chromosome?
    50%
  51. What do viruses need in order to replicate themselves?
    A living cell to infect
  52. retrovirus
    when a virus has a RNA core instead of a DNA core
  53. when a virus has a RNA core instead of a DNA core
    retrovirus
  54. pathogens
    microorganisms that cause disease
  55. microorganisms that cause disease
    pathogens
  56. Level of organization in a multicellular body from smallest to largest
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
  57. Level of organization in a multicellular body from smallest to largest
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
  58. homeostasis
    the process that keeps internal systems in balance despite a changing external environment
  59. the process that keeps internal systems in balance despite a changing external environment
    homeostasis
  60. feedback inhibition
    the process in which a stimulus produces a response that is opposite to the original stimulus. These systems are very stable.
  61. the process in which a stimulus produces a response that is opposite to the original stimulus. These systems are very stable.
    feedback inhibition
  62. three types of neurons
    • sensory neurons
    • motor neurons
    • interneurons
  63. sensory neurons
    these carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain
  64. these carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain
    sensory neurons
  65. motor neurons
    these carry impulses from the brain and the spinal cord to muscles and glands
  66. these carry impulses from the brain and the spinal cord to muscles and glands
    motor neurons
  67. interneurons
    these connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them
  68. these connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them
    inerneurons
  69. How are neurons classified?
    According to the direction in which an impulse travels
  70. How are neurons classified?
    According to the direction in which an impulse travels
  71. the function of the nervous system
    to control and coordinate functions throughout the body and respond to internal and external stimuli
  72. to control and coordinate functions throughout the body and respond to internal and external stimuli
    the function of the nervous system
  73. myelin sheath
    increases the speed at which the impulse in a nerve can travel
  74. increases the speed at which the impulse in a nerve can travel
    myelin sheath
  75. threshold
    the minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron
  76. the minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron
    threshold
  77. cerebrum
    • largest part of the brain
    • responsible for the voluntary activities of the body
  78. cerebrum

    cerebellum (location)
    located at the back of the brain

    located at the back of the brain
    cerebellum (location)

    cerebellum (function)
    coordinates and balances the actions of the muscles so that the body can move gracefully and efficiently

    coordinates and balances the actions of the muscles so that the body can move gracefully and efficiently
    cerebellum (function)

    brain stem
    controls functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing

    controls functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing
    brain stem

    Do reflexes involve sending sensory messages to the brain?
    No

    Where are photoreceptors located?
    In the retina of the eye

    Where are photoreceptors located?
    In the retina of the eye

    cones
    photoreceptors that are used to see colors

    photoreceptors that are used to see colors
    cones

    rods
    photoreceptors that are very sensitive to light, but do not distinguish color

    photoreceptors that are very sensitive to light, but do not distinguish color
    rods

    semicircular canals
    These along with two tiny sacs containing fluid are lined with hair cells that send messages to the brain regarding head and body positions

    These along with two tiny sacs containing fluid are lined with hair cells that send messages to the brain regarding head and body positions
    semicircular canals

    Function of the digestive system
    This system coverts food into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body.

    This system coverts food into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body.
    Function of the digestive system

    mouth
    where chemical digestion begins

    where chemical digestion begins
    mouth

    amylase
    an enzymes in the salivary glands in the mouth that begins the breakdown of starches

    an enzymes in the salivary glands in the mouth that begins the breakdown of starches
    amylase

    esophagus
    food moves from the mouth to the stomach through this tube

    food moves from the mouth to the stomach through this tube
    esophagus

    peristalsis
    the muscle contractions that squeeze food through the length of the esophagus into the stomach

    the muscle contractions that squeeze food through the length of the esophagus into the stomach
    peristalsis

    stomach
    food from the esophagus empties into this large muscular sac

    food from the esophagus empties into this large muscular sac
    stomach

    pancreas

    an accessory organ in the digestive system that:
    regulates blood sugar levels,
    produces enzymes that break down carbohydrate, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
    neutralizes stomach acid by producing sodium bicarbonate



    an accessory organ in the digestive system that:
    regulates blood sugar levels,
    produces enzymes that break down carbohydrate, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
    neutralizes stomach acid by producing sodium bicarbonate
    pancreas
  79. sodium bicarbonate
    the pancreas produce this to neutralize stomach acid
  80. the pancreas produce this to neutralize stomach acid
    sodium bicarbonate
  81. small intestine
    in humans, where most of the chemical digestion of food takes place
  82. in humans, where most of the chemical digestion of food takes place
    small intestine
  83. bile
    produced by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats
  84. produced by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats
    bile
  85. villi
    its fingerlike projections increase the surface area of the small intestine
  86. its fingerlike projections increase the surface area of the small intestine
    villi
  87. Water
    absorbed from undigested food in the large intestine (colon)
  88. absorbed from undigested food in the large intestine (colon)
    Water
  89. Helicobacter pylori
    bacteria that cause peptic ulcers (scientists used to believe that too much stomach acid was the cause)
  90. bacteria that cause peptic ulcers (scientists used to believe that too much stomach acid was the cause)
    Helicobacter pylori
  91. nephrons
    wastes from the blood are filtered out by millions of these in the kidney
  92. wastes from the blood are filtered out by millions of these in the kidney
    nephrons
  93. urethra
    urine is released to the outside of the body through this
  94. urine is released to the outside of the body through this
    urethra
  95. kidney stones
    these crystal formations from calcium, magnesium, or uric salts block the ureter, causing great pain
  96. these crystal formations from calcium, magnesium, or uric salts block the ureter, causing great pain
    kidney stones
  97. skin
    the body's best nonspecific defense against pathogens
  98. the body's best nonspecific defense against pathogens
    skin
  99. Is the inflammatory response specific or nonspecific?
    nonspecific
  100. Is the inflammatory response specific or nonspecific?
    nonspecific
  101. 3 symptoms of the inflammatory response
    • pain
    • swelling
    • redness
  102. pain
    swelling
    redness
    3 symptoms of the inflammatory response
  103. Millions of these are produced during the inflammatory response by the immune system.
    white blood cells
  104. Millions of these are produced during the inflammatory response by the immune system.
    white blood cells
  105. vaccine
    a weakened form of a pathogen is injected to help the body build a resistance to that pathogen
  106. a weakened form of a pathogen is injected to help the body build a resistance to that pathogen
    vaccine
  107. helper T cells
    HIV weakens the immune system by destroying these
  108. HIV weakens the immune system by destroying these
    helper T cells
  109. XY
    sex chromosomes for a human male
  110. sex chromosomes for a human male
    XY
  111. XX
    sex chromosomes for a human female
  112. sex chromosomes for a human female
    XX
  113. Sex-linked genes
    genes that are mostly located on the X chromosome (a few are on the Y chromosome)
  114. genes that are mostly located on the X chromosome (a few are on the Y chromosome)
    Sex-linked genes
  115. Why do sex-linked genes mostly affect males?
    Because males only have 1 X chromosome--so all X-linked alleles are expressed even if they are recessive
  116. Why do sex-linked genes mostly affect males?
    Because males only have 1 X chromosome--so all X-linked alleles are expressed even if they are recessive
  117. nondisjunction of chromosomes
    When homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis which can lead to an abnormal number of chromosomes in gametes which can lead to disorders such as Down Syndrome.
  118. When homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis which can lead to an abnormal number of chromosomes in gametes which can lead to disorders such as Down Syndrome.
    nondisjunction of chromosomes
  119. fossils
    the preserved remains of ancient organisms
  120. the preserved remains of ancient organisms
    fossils
  121. Galápagos Islands
    the most important stop that Charles Darwin made in his travels aboard the HMS Beagle
  122. the most important stop that Charles Darwin made in his travels aboard the HMS Beagle
    Galápagos Islands
  123. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    proposed that species change over time due to the selective use and disuse of traits that were then passed on to offspring
  124. proposed that species change over time due to the selective use and disuse of traits that were then passed on to offspring
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  125. How does natural selection affect the evolution of a species?
    It results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species' fitness in its environment.
  126. How does natural selection affect the evolution of a species?
    It results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species' fitness in its environment.
  127. Does natural selection act directly on the genotype or phenotype of an organism?
    genotype
  128. Which pair of bones are homologous to each other?
    bird wings & front legs of a cat
    -or-
    bat wings and fly wings
    bird wings & front legs of a cat
  129. vestigial organs
    an example is the very small rear leg bones in a whale since they are so small and no longer are any real benefit to the whale
  130. an example is the very small rear leg bones in a whale since they are so small and no longer are any real benefit to the whale
    vestigial organs
  131. There is a wide variety of height in the human population because height in humans is a single-gene trait or a polygenic trait?
    polygenic trait
  132. geographic isolation
    when 2 populations are separated by natural barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water
  133. when 2 populations are separated by natural barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water
    geographic isolation
  134. behavioral isolation
    when 2 populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship ritual or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior
  135. when 2 populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship ritual or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior
    behavioral isolation
  136. Fossils are usually found in _______ rock.
    sedimentary
  137. Which type of geologic dating utilizes index fossils?
    relative dating
  138. radioactive isotopes
    in radioactive dating, scientists calculate the age of a rock sample based on the amount of this remaining material
  139. in radioactive dating, scientists calculate the age of a rock sample based on the amount of this remaining material
    radioactive isotopes
  140. To date the age of an Egyptian mummy, would carbon-14 or radioactive dating be used?
    Carbon-14, because carbon-14 is taken up by all living things while they are alive.
  141. Cenozoic Era
    the geologic period when man first appeared
  142. the geologic period when man first appeared
    Cenozoic Era
  143. Precambrian Era
    Nearly 90% of the Earth's history consists of this era when only simple microorganisms existed in the world
  144. Nearly 90% of the Earth's history consists of this era when only simple microorganisms existed in the world
    Precambrian Era
  145. cocci
    round shaped bacteria
  146. round shaped bacteria
    cocci
  147. bacilli
    rod shaped bacteria
  148. rod shaped bacteria
    bacilli
  149. spiral shaped bacteria
    spirilla
  150. spirilla
    spiral shaped bacteria
  151. What does aerobic bacteria require in order to survive?
    oxygen
  152. binary fission
    bacteria use this process to reproduce asexually
  153. bacteria use this process to reproduce asexually
    binary fission
  154. conjugation
    bacteria use this process to reproduce sexually
  155. bacteria use this process to reproduce sexually
    conjugation
  156. Why are nitrogen-fixing bacteria important to plants?
    bacteria converts nitrogen gas (useless to plants) to ammonia which plants need to make amino acids, the building blocks of protein

  157. name A
    esophagus

  158. name B
    stomach

  159. name C
    pancreas

  160. name D
    small intestine

  161. name E
    rectum

  162. name F
    anus

  163. name G
    appendix

  164. name H
    cecum

  165. name I
    large intestine (colon)

  166. name J
    gall bladder

  167. name K
    liver

  168. Name A
    Kidney

  169. Name B
    Ureter

  170. Name C
    Urinary Bladder

  171. Name D
    Urethra

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