Based on interactions with primary caregiver which are essential and will lay the foundation for the view the child will later have about the world.
What are the four types of attachment?
What is temperament?
A pattern of emotional response and behavioral reactivity to situations and stressors
What are the three types of temperament?
Slow to warm up
Of the three types of temperaments, which are most children associated with?
Slow to warm up
What are the 3 research designs used to study development?
Different participants of various ages are compared at one point in time to determine age-related differences
Example of Cross-Sectional Design
All groups studied in the same year
Group 1 - age 20
Group 2 - age 40
Group 3 - age 60
The same participants are studied at various ages to determine age-related changes
Example of Longitudinal Design
Same group of participants throughout study.
Study 1 - age 20 Year: 1971
Study 2 - age 40 Year: 1991
Study 3 - age 60 Year: 2011
Different participants of various ages are compared at several points in time, to determine both age-related differences and age-related changes
Example of Cross-Sequential Design
Two groups during each study and same group studied at different times.
Study 1 - Group 1: age 20 Year: 2011
Group 2: age 40 Year: 2011
Study 2 - Group 1: age 25 Year: 2016
Group 2: age 45 Year: 2016
Nature vs Nurture
The argument between the influence on a person through genetics (nature) or the environment (nurture).
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
Three periods of pregnancy
Period of Pregnancy - Germinal
First 2 weeks
Zygote implants in uterus
In sexual reproduction, the product of the union of sperm and egg.
Period of Pregnancy - Embryonic
2 - 8 weeks after fertilization
major organs and structures develop
embryo is vulnerable to teratogens
The penetration of the egg by the sperm and fusion of genetic materials to result in the development of an embryo.
An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development
Any agent or substance which can cause malformation of an embryo or birth defects
Period of Pregnancy - Fetal
8 weeks to birth
Baby felt in 4th - 5th month
When are miscarriages most likely to happen?
In the first 3 months
An unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception
Piaget's 4 stages
Piaget's 4 stages - Sensorimotor & Ages
Birth - 2 years
Child explores world using senses and ability to move.
Child develops object permanence and understands that concepts and mental images represent objects, people, and events.
Piaget's 4 stages - Preoperational & Ages
2 - 7 years
Young child mentally represents and refers to objects and events verbally or with pictures.
Young child can pretend.
Young child is egocentric.
Young child is not capable of centration.
What is egocentric?
Centered in or arising from a person's own existence or perspective
What is centration?
the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
Piaget's 4 stages - Concrete Operations & Ages
7 - 12 years old
Child is capable of centration, reverse thinking and classify objects based on characteristics.
Child can think logically and understand analogies but only about concrete events.
Very interested in rules. Loves board games usually.
Piaget's 4 stages - Formal Operations & Ages
12 - adulthood
People at this stage are capable of abstract reasoning about hypothetical events or situations, think about logical possibilities, use abstract analogies, and systematically examine and test hypotheses.
Not everyone can eventually reason in all these ways.
Piaget: Children form mental concepts or (1)_______ as they experience new situations and events. Using these (2)________ when introduced to new things is called (3)__________.
What is accommodation?
The process of adapting or adjusting to someone or something
Vygotsky - scaffolding
the process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
Vygotsky - Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
difference between what a child can do alone and what that same child can do with the help of a teacher
Harlow study - Comfort Contact
Monkeys separated from mother at birth
2 surrogate mothers - provide food and warmth
Result: monkeys spent all their time with surrogate that was soft and comfortable