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the study of abnormal behavior
Abnormal psychological disorders are (1)_____, (2)______,(3)______, (4)_______ and (5)________
- 1. statistically rare
- 2. deviant from social norms (situational context)
- 3. subjective discomfort
- 4. inability to function normally
- 5. sociocultural perspective
Definition of insane
- It is a legal term, not clinical.
- It is defined as a person knowing something is wrong and being incapable of adapting to behaviors of the norm.
What are the V Axis of Diagnosis?
- Axis I: all clinical disorders
- Axis II: Personality Disorders
- Axis III: Medical Conditions
- Axis: IV: Psychosocial/ Environmental
- Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning
What is Axis I of the V Axis Diagnosis?
All clinical disorders, which would be everything that is NOT a personality disorder.
What is Axis II of the V Axis Diagnosis?
- These are personality disorders.
- Assessing a person to have a personality disorder is deferred until after 3 - 6 months of treatment.
During the V Axis Diagnosis, why does it take between 3 - 6 months of treatment to diagnose a patient with a personality disorder?
The reason a personality disorder takes 3 - 6 months to diagnosis is because it takes time to assess a personality disorder.
What is the Axis III of the V Axis Diagnosis?
- This Axis is for medical conditions.
- Usually a patient self discloses their medical history.
Axis III is usually deferred to ________ _______.
a medical professional.
What MUST the psychologist/psychiatrist rule out as a possible reason for any symptoms in Axis III?
- Some symptoms may be due to a patient's medicines or medical condition
- and the psychologist/psychiatrist MUST rule out a medical condition as a
- possible reason for any symptoms.
What is an anxiety disorder?
Anxiety disorders are disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness.
types of anxiety disorders
- panic attacks
- social and specific phobias
sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying
symptoms of a panic attack
- feeling of choking
- chest pain
- fear of dying/going crazy
happens often, cause difficulty in everyday life
- it is not about the attack
- there is fear in having a panic attack and having no assistance available
an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
- fear of objects or specific situation or events
- e.g., animal, natural environment, situational, etc.
acute stress disorder (asd)
- a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor
- there are symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to "relive" the event in dreams and flashbacks
- lasts for as long as 1 month**
posttrumatic stress disorder (ptsd)
- a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor
- symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, concentration problems
- lasts for more than 1 month**
asd vs. ptsd
- asd ptsd
- - 2 days - 4 weeks - 1 month+ duration
- both experience/witness or confronted with actual or threatened death
- response involved intense fear, helplessness or horror
- event was persistently re-experienced as a dream, flashback, etc.
- avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma (thoughts, places, activities, people)
- symptoms of increased arousal (insomnia, anger, hypervigilant)
what is hypervigilant?
over vigilant or a person always on alert
causes of anxiety disorder: psychodynamic
explanations point to repressed urges and desires that are trying to come into conscious, creating anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior
causes of anxiety disorder: behaviorists
state that disordered behavior is learned through both positive and negative reinforcement
causes of anxiety disorders: biological
explanations of anxiety disorders include chemical imbalances in the nervous system, in particular serotonin and GABA systems
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive
psychologists believe that excessive anxiety comes from illogical, irrational thought processes
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive thought processes (1)_____, (2)_______, (3)______, and (4)_______
- 1. magnification
- 2. all-or-nothing
- 3. overgeneralization
- 4. minimization
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - magnification
the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - All-or-Nothing thinking
the tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the results will be a total failure
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - overgeneralization
the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failure
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - minimization
the tendency to give little or no importance to one's successes or positive events and traits
disorders in which mood is severely disturbed
severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes
What is Bipolar 1?
one or more Manic episodes often with one or more Major Depressive episodes
What is Bipolar 2?
one or more Major Depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes
If a person never has a manic or hypomanic episode then the person is diagnosed as______.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
What are the two types of Bi-Polar?
- Major Depressive Episode
- Manic Episode
Major Depressive Episode
severely depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause
Major Depressive Episode symptoms
- depressed mood most of the day, all day
- diminished pleasure in activities
- weight loss or gain
- insomnia or hypersomnia
- fatigue or loss of energy
- feeling of worthlessness
- recurrent thoughts of death
How many of the Major Depressive Episode symptoms and over what duration would a person need to display to receive a diagnosis of having MDE?
- 5+ symptoms
- over a 2 week period
having the quality of excessive excitement
Manic Episode symptoms
- inflated self esteem or grandeur
- decreased need for sleep
- more talkative than usual
- flight of ideas (ideas are changing constantly)
- distractability (continued pattern, not occasional)
How many manic episode symptoms and what duration would a person need to be diagnosed as having Manic Episodes?
causes of mood disorders: behavioral (learning)
theories link depression to learned helplessness
causes of mood disorders: cognitive
theories see depression as the result of distorted, illogical thinking
causes of mood disorders: biological
explanations of mood disorders look at the function of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine systems in the brain
- anorexia nervosa (anorexia)
- bulimia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia)
- a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point of 15% below the ideal body weight or more occurs
- a person uses one or more techniques to lose body weight
- this individual sees self as fat when they are not
Bulimia Nervosa (Bulimia)
a condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging" and "purging" or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain
signs of possible eating disorder
- dramatic weight loss in short period of time
- obsession with calories and fat content of food
- hides food in strange places
- hair loss, pale appearance of skin
- bruised or callused knuckles
- bloodshot eyes with light brusing undereyes
- frequent trips to bathroom following meals
- obsessed with continuous exercise
- wears baggy clothes to hide body shape & weight loss
- reads books about weight loss and eating disorders
- complains of feeling cold
Which disorders is the most complex and has the least success in overcoming?
- eating disorders - anorexia and bulimia
- takes a variety of therapies to help patient
each psychotic disorder has delusions**, hallucinations**, disorganized speech and behavior as well as negative symptoms
What two symptoms MUST a person have to be diagnosed with a psychotic disorder?
delusions AND hallucinations
Which type of hallucination is most common with psychotic disorders?
What is an important factor for differentiating between psychotic disorders?
What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as having a brief psychotic disorder?
Less than one month.
What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as schizophreniform?
Less than 6 months.
What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia?
More than 6 months.
the break away from an ability to perceive what is real and what is fanasy
severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality
What does it mean when a person with schizophrenia has a positive symptom?
A symptom that they did not have before schizophrenia.
What does it mean when a person with schizophrenia has a negative symptom?
It is a symptom that takes away from what they had before schizophrenia.
Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Psychotic
delusions - strong belief held in spite of strong evidence to contrary
Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Hallucinations
Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Disorganized
- disorganized speech
- disorganized or catatonic behavior
What is catatonic behavior?
- behavior characterized by muscular tightness or rigidity and lack of response to the environment.
- In some patients rigidity alternates with excited or hyperactive behavior
Negative (used to have and no longer have) Schizophrenia symptoms
- blunted affect
- poor rapport
- difficulty in abstract thinking
- emotional/social wiithdrawal
- stereotyped thinking patterns
- alogia - restricted speech fluency/productivity
causes of Schizophrenia - psychoanalytic
resulting from a severe breakdown of the ego, which has become overwhelmed by the demands of the id and results in childish, infantile behavior
causes of Schizophrenia - behaviorists
focus on how reinforcement, observational learning, and shaping affect the development of the behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia
causes of Schizophrenia - cognitive
severely irrational thinking
causes of Schizophrenia - biological
dopamine, structural defects in the brain, inflammation and genetic influences
causes of Schizophrenia - Stress-vulnerability model
explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will develop under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress
What are personality disorders?
are related to pattern of experience from childhood
To prevent an individual from being mislabeled from having a personality disorder, what will a therapist do instead?
- A therapist will instead note a character type.
- Mislabeling an individual as having a personality disorder is a stigma; therefore noting a character type is better for the individual's ego.
Personality Disorder - Borderline
- Lacking in a clear sense of identity
- Clinging to others
Personality Disorder - Dependent
- Want others to make decisions for them
Personality Disorders - Antisocial
- Lacking in conscience or morals
- Users and con artists who experience no regret or strong emotions
Personality Disorders - Schizoid
Loners who are cool, distant, and unwilling and unable to form close relationships with others