psych220 CH 14 (must edit)

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psych220 CH 14 (must edit)
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Psychology 220 chapter 14 final notecards
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  1. Psychopathology
    the study of abnormal behavior
  2. Abnormal psychological disorders are (1)_____, (2)______,(3)______, (4)_______ and (5)________
    • 1. statistically rare
    • 2. deviant from social norms (situational context)
    • 3. subjective discomfort
    • 4. inability to function normally
    • 5. sociocultural perspective
  3. Definition of insane
    • It is a legal term, not clinical.
    • It is defined as a person knowing something is wrong and being incapable of adapting to behaviors of the norm.
  4. What are the V Axis of Diagnosis?
    • Axis I: all clinical disorders
    • Axis II: Personality Disorders
    • Axis III: Medical Conditions
    • Axis: IV: Psychosocial/ Environmental
    • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning
  5. What is Axis I of the V Axis Diagnosis?
    All clinical disorders, which would be everything that is NOT a personality disorder.
  6. What is Axis II of the V Axis Diagnosis?
    • These are personality disorders.
    • Assessing a person to have a personality disorder is deferred until after 3 - 6 months of treatment.
  7. During the V Axis Diagnosis, why does it take between 3 - 6 months of treatment to diagnose a patient with a personality disorder?
    The reason a personality disorder takes 3 - 6 months to diagnosis is because it takes time to assess a personality disorder.
  8. What is the Axis III of the V Axis Diagnosis?
    • This Axis is for medical conditions.
    • Usually a patient self discloses their medical history.
  9. Axis III is usually deferred to ________ _______.
    a medical professional.
  10. What MUST the psychologist/psychiatrist rule out as a possible reason for any symptoms in Axis III?
    • Some symptoms may be due to a patient's medicines or medical condition
    • and the psychologist/psychiatrist MUST rule out a medical condition as a
    • possible reason for any symptoms.
  11. What is an anxiety disorder?
    Anxiety disorders are disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness.
  12. types of anxiety disorders
    • panic attacks
    • social and specific phobias
  13. Panic attacks
    sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying
  14. symptoms of a panic attack
    • palpitations
    • sweating
    • trembling
    • feeling of choking
    • chest pain
    • nausea
    • dizziness
    • fear of dying/going crazy
  15. panic disorder
    happens often, cause difficulty in everyday life
  16. agoraphobia
    • it is not about the attack
    • there is fear in having a panic attack and having no assistance available
  17. phobia
    an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
  18. social phobia
    fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
  19. specific phobia
    • fear of objects or specific situation or events
    • e.g., animal, natural environment, situational, etc.
  20. acute stress disorder (asd)
    • a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor
    • there are symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to "relive" the event in dreams and flashbacks
    • lasts for as long as 1 month**
  21. posttrumatic stress disorder (ptsd)
    • a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor
    • symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, concentration problems
    • lasts for more than 1 month**
  22. asd vs. ptsd
    • asd                                ptsd
    • - 2 days - 4 weeks           - 1 month+ duration
    • duration

    • both experience/witness or confronted with actual or threatened death
    • response involved intense fear, helplessness or horror
    • event was persistently re-experienced as a dream, flashback, etc.
    • avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma (thoughts, places, activities, people)
    • symptoms of increased arousal (insomnia, anger, hypervigilant)
  23. what is hypervigilant?
    over vigilant or a person always on alert
  24. causes of anxiety disorder: psychodynamic
    explanations point to repressed urges and desires that are trying to come into conscious, creating anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior
  25. causes of anxiety disorder: behaviorists
    state that disordered behavior is learned through both positive and negative reinforcement
  26. causes of anxiety disorders: biological
    explanations of anxiety disorders include chemical imbalances in the nervous system, in particular serotonin and GABA systems
  27. causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive
    psychologists believe that excessive anxiety comes from illogical, irrational thought processes
  28. causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive thought processes (1)_____, (2)_______, (3)______, and (4)_______
    • 1. magnification
    • 2. all-or-nothing
    • 3. overgeneralization
    • 4. minimization
  29. causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - magnification
    the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are
  30. causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - All-or-Nothing thinking
    the tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the results will be a total failure
  31. causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - overgeneralization
    the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failure
  32. causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - minimization
    the tendency to give little or no importance to one's successes or positive events and traits
  33. Mood Disorders
    disorders in which mood is severely disturbed
  34. Bi-Polar Disorder
    severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes
  35. What is Bipolar 1?
    one or more Manic episodes often with one or more Major Depressive episodes
  36. What is Bipolar 2?
    one or more Major Depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes
  37. What is hypomanic?
    ...
  38. If a person never has a manic or hypomanic episode then the person is diagnosed as______.
    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
  39. What are the two types of Bi-Polar?
    • Major Depressive Episode
    • Manic Episode
  40. Major Depressive Episode
    severely depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause
  41. Major Depressive Episode symptoms
    • depressed mood most of the day, all day
    • diminished pleasure in activities
    • weight loss or gain
    • insomnia or hypersomnia
    • fatigue or loss of energy
    • feeling of worthlessness
    • recurrent thoughts of death
  42. How many of the Major Depressive Episode symptoms and over what duration would a person need to display to receive a diagnosis of having MDE?
    • 5+ symptoms
    • over a 2 week period
  43. Manic episode
    having the quality of excessive excitement
  44. Manic Episode symptoms
    • inflated self esteem or grandeur
    • decreased need for sleep
    • more talkative than usual
    • flight of ideas (ideas are changing constantly)
    • distractability (continued pattern, not occasional)
  45. How many manic episode symptoms and what duration would a person need to be diagnosed as having Manic Episodes?
    • 3+ symptoms
    • for 1 week
  46. causes of mood disorders: behavioral (learning)
    theories link depression to learned helplessness
  47. causes of mood disorders: cognitive
    theories see depression as the result of distorted, illogical thinking
  48. causes of mood disorders: biological
    explanations of mood disorders look at the function of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine systems in the brain
  49. eating disorders
    • anorexia nervosa (anorexia)
    • bulimia nervosa
  50. Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia)
    • a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point of 15% below the ideal body weight or more occurs
    • a person uses one or more techniques to lose body weight
    • this individual sees self as fat when they are not
  51. Bulimia Nervosa (Bulimia)
    a condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging" and "purging" or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain
  52. signs of possible eating disorder
    • dramatic weight loss in short period of time
    • obsession with calories and fat content of food
    • hides food in strange places
    • hair loss, pale appearance of skin
    • bruised or callused knuckles
    • bloodshot eyes with light brusing undereyes
    • frequent trips to bathroom following meals
    • obsessed with continuous exercise
    • wears baggy clothes to hide body shape & weight loss
    • reads books about weight loss and eating disorders
    • complains of feeling cold
  53. Which disorders is the most complex and has the least success in overcoming?
    • eating disorders - anorexia and bulimia
    • takes a variety of therapies to help patient
  54. Psychotic disorders
    each psychotic disorder has delusions**, hallucinations**, disorganized speech and behavior as well as negative symptoms
  55. What two symptoms MUST a person have to be diagnosed with a psychotic disorder?
    delusions AND hallucinations
  56. Which type of hallucination is most common with psychotic disorders?
    auditory hallucinations
  57. What is an important factor for differentiating between psychotic disorders?
    Time frame
  58. What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as having a brief psychotic disorder?
    Less than one month.
  59. What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as schizophreniform?
    Less than 6 months.
  60. What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia?
    More than 6 months.
  61. Psychotic Break
    the break away from an ability to perceive what is real and what is fanasy
  62. Schizophrenia
    severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality
  63. What does it mean when a person with schizophrenia has a positive symptom?
    A symptom that they did not have before schizophrenia.
  64. What does it mean when a person with schizophrenia has a negative symptom?
    It is a symptom that takes away from what they had before schizophrenia.
  65. Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Psychotic
    delusions - strong belief held in spite of strong evidence to contrary
  66. Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Hallucinations
    auditory hallucinations
  67. Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Disorganized
    • disorganized speech
    • disorganized or catatonic behavior
  68. What is catatonic behavior?
    • behavior characterized by muscular tightness or rigidity and lack of response to the environment.
    • In some patients rigidity alternates with excited or hyperactive behavior
  69. Negative (used to have and no longer have) Schizophrenia symptoms
    • blunted affect
    • poor rapport
    • apathy
    • difficulty in abstract thinking
    • emotional/social wiithdrawal
    • stereotyped thinking patterns
    • alogia - restricted speech fluency/productivity
  70. causes of Schizophrenia - psychoanalytic
    resulting from a severe breakdown of the ego, which has become overwhelmed by the demands of the id and results in childish, infantile behavior
  71. causes of Schizophrenia - behaviorists
    focus on how reinforcement, observational learning, and shaping affect the development of the behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia
  72. causes of Schizophrenia - cognitive
    severely irrational thinking
  73. causes of Schizophrenia - biological
    dopamine, structural defects in the brain, inflammation and genetic influences
  74. causes of Schizophrenia - Stress-vulnerability model
    explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will develop under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress
  75. What are personality disorders?
    are related to pattern of experience from childhood
  76. To prevent an individual from being mislabeled from having a personality disorder, what will a therapist do instead?
    • A therapist will instead note a character type.
    • Mislabeling an individual as having a personality disorder is a stigma; therefore noting a character type is better for the individual's ego.
  77. Personality Disorder - Borderline
    • Moody
    • Unstable
    • Lacking in a clear sense of identity
    • Clinging to others
  78. Personality Disorder - Dependent
    • Needy
    • Want others to make decisions for them
  79. Personality Disorders - Antisocial
    • Lacking in conscience or morals
    • Users and con artists who experience no regret or strong emotions
  80. Personality Disorders - Schizoid
    Loners who are cool, distant, and unwilling and unable to form close relationships with others
  81. Test Anxiety (pg 564 -5)

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