psych220 CH 14 (must edit)
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psych220 CH 14 (must edit)
Psychology 220 chapter 14 final notecards
the study of abnormal behavior
Abnormal psychological disorders are (1)_____, (2)______,(3)______, (4)_______ and (5)________
1. statistically rare
2. deviant from social norms (situational context)
3. subjective discomfort
4. inability to function normally
5. sociocultural perspective
Definition of insane
It is a legal term, not clinical.
It is defined as a person knowing something is wrong and being incapable of adapting to behaviors of the norm.
What are the V Axis of Diagnosis?
: all clinical disorders
: Personality Disorders
: Medical Conditions
: IV: Psychosocial/ Environmental
: Global Assessment of Functioning
What is Axis I of the V Axis Diagnosis?
All clinical disorders, which would be everything that is NOT a personality disorder.
What is Axis II of the V Axis Diagnosis?
These are personality disorders.
Assessing a person to have a personality disorder is deferred until after 3 - 6 months of treatment.
During the V Axis Diagnosis, why does it take between 3 - 6 months of treatment to diagnose a patient with a personality disorder?
The reason a personality disorder takes 3 - 6 months to diagnosis is because it takes time to assess a personality disorder.
What is the Axis III of the V Axis Diagnosis?
This Axis is for medical conditions.
Usually a patient self discloses their medical history.
Axis III is usually deferred to ________ _______.
a medical professional.
What MUST the psychologist/psychiatrist rule out as a possible reason for any symptoms in Axis III?
Some symptoms may be due to a patient's medicines or medical condition
and the psychologist/psychiatrist MUST rule out a medical condition as a
possible reason for any symptoms.
What is an anxiety disorder?
Anxiety disorders are disorders in which the main symptom is
types of anxiety disorders
social and specific phobias
sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying
symptoms of a panic attack
feeling of choking
fear of dying/going crazy
happens often, cause difficulty in everyday life
it is not about the attack
there is fear in having a panic attack and having no assistance available
an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
fear of objects or specific situation or events
e.g., animal, natural environment, situational, etc.
acute stress disorder (asd)
a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor
there are symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to "relive" the event in dreams and flashbacks
as long as 1 month
posttrumatic stress disorder (ptsd)
a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor
symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, concentration problems
more than 1 month
asd vs. ptsd
- 2 days - 4 weeks - 1 month+ duration
both experience/witness or confronted with actual or threatened death
response involved intense fear, helplessness or horror
event was persistently re-experienced as a dream, flashback, etc.
avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma (thoughts, places, activities, people)
symptoms of increased arousal (insomnia, anger, hypervigilant)
what is hypervigilant?
over vigilant or a person always on alert
causes of anxiety disorder: psychodynamic
explanations point to repressed urges and desires that are trying to come into conscious, creating anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior
causes of anxiety disorder: behaviorists
state that disordered behavior is learned through both positive and negative reinforcement
causes of anxiety disorders: biological
explanations of anxiety disorders include chemical imbalances in the nervous system, in particular serotonin and GABA systems
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive
psychologists believe that excessive anxiety comes from illogical, irrational thought processes
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive thought processes (1)_____, (2)_______, (3)______, and (4)_______
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - magnification
the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - All-or-Nothing thinking
the tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the results will be a total failure
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - overgeneralization
the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failure
causes of anxiety disorder: cognitive - minimization
the tendency to give little or no importance to one's successes or positive events and traits
disorders in which mood is severely disturbed
severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes
What is Bipolar 1?
one or more Manic episodes often with one or more Major Depressive episodes
What is Bipolar 2?
one or more Major Depressive episodes with
What is hypomanic?
If a person never has a manic or hypomanic episode then the person is diagnosed as______.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
What are the two types of Bi-Polar?
Major Depressive Episode
Major Depressive Episode
severely depression that
comes on suddenly
and seems to have
no external cause
Major Depressive Episode symptoms
depressed mood most of the day, all day
diminished pleasure in activities
weight loss or gain
insomnia or hypersomnia
fatigue or loss of energy
feeling of worthlessness
recurrent thoughts of death
How many of the Major Depressive Episode symptoms and over what duration would a person need to display to receive a diagnosis of having MDE?
over a 2 week period
having the quality of
Manic Episode symptoms
inflated self esteem or grandeur
decreased need for sleep
more talkative than usual
flight of ideas (ideas are changing constantly)
distractability (continued pattern, not occasional)
How many manic episode symptoms and what duration would a person need to be diagnosed as having Manic Episodes?
for 1 week
causes of mood disorders: behavioral (learning)
theories link depression to learned helplessness
causes of mood disorders: cognitive
theories see depression as the result of distorted, illogical thinking
causes of mood disorders: biological
explanations of mood disorders look at the function of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine systems in the brain
anorexia nervosa (anorexia)
Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia)
a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point of 15% below the ideal body weight or more occurs
a person uses one or more techniques to lose body weight
this individual sees self as fat when they are not
Bulimia Nervosa (Bulimia)
a condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging" and "purging" or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain
signs of possible eating disorder
dramatic weight loss in short period of time
obsession with calories and fat content of food
hides food in strange places
hair loss, pale appearance of skin
bruised or callused knuckles
bloodshot eyes with light brusing undereyes
frequent trips to bathroom following meals
obsessed with continuous exercise
wears baggy clothes to hide body shape & weight loss
reads books about weight loss and eating disorders
complains of feeling cold
Which disorders is the most complex and has the least success in overcoming?
eating disorders - anorexia and bulimia
takes a variety of therapies to help patient
each psychotic disorder has delusions**, hallucinations**, disorganized speech and behavior as well as negative symptoms
What two symptoms MUST a person have to be diagnosed with a psychotic disorder?
delusions AND hallucinations
Which type of hallucination is most common with psychotic disorders?
What is an important factor for differentiating between psychotic disorders?
What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as having a brief psychotic disorder?
Less than one month.
What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as schizophreniform?
Less than 6 months.
What is the time frame for an individual with psychotic symptoms to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia?
More than 6 months.
the break away from an ability to perceive what is real and what is fanasy
severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality
What does it mean when a person with schizophrenia has a positive symptom?
A symptom that they did not have before schizophrenia.
What does it mean when a person with schizophrenia has a negative symptom?
It is a symptom that takes away from what they had before schizophrenia.
Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Psychotic
delusions - strong belief held in spite of strong evidence to contrary
Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Hallucinations
Positive (added) Schizophrenia symptoms: Disorganized
disorganized or catatonic behavior
What is catatonic behavior?
behavior characterized by muscular tightness or rigidity and lack of response to the environment.
In some patients rigidity alternates with excited or hyperactive behavior
Negative (used to have and no longer have) Schizophrenia symptoms
difficulty in abstract thinking
stereotyped thinking patterns
alogia - restricted speech fluency/productivity
causes of Schizophrenia - psychoanalytic
resulting from a severe breakdown of the ego, which has become overwhelmed by the demands of the id and results in childish, infantile behavior
causes of Schizophrenia - behaviorists
focus on how reinforcement, observational learning, and shaping affect the development of the behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia
causes of Schizophrenia - cognitive
severely irrational thinking
causes of Schizophrenia - biological
dopamine, structural defects in the brain, inflammation and genetic influences
causes of Schizophrenia - Stress-vulnerability model
explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will develop under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress
What are personality disorders?
are related to pattern of experience from childhood
To prevent an individual from being mislabeled from having a personality disorder, what will a therapist do instead?
A therapist will instead note a character type.
Mislabeling an individual as having a personality disorder is a stigma; therefore noting a character type is better for the individual's ego.
Personality Disorder - Borderline
Lacking in a clear sense of identity
Clinging to others
Personality Disorder - Dependent
Want others to make decisions for them
Personality Disorders - Antisocial
Lacking in conscience or morals
Users and con artists who experience no regret or strong emotions
Personality Disorders - Schizoid
Loners who are cool, distant, and unwilling and unable to form close relationships with others
Test Anxiety (pg 564 -5)