Pharmacology Test 1

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  1. The study of biological effects of chemicals
  2. Pharmacotherapeutics
    Clinical pharmacology
  3. Chemicals introduced into the body to cause some sort of change
  4. Nurse's Responsibility
    Administer drug, Assess effects, Intervene drug regimen, Teaching, Monitoring and prevention of medication errors
  5. Increasing or discontinuing is the responsibility of
    The HCP, but nurse can hold the med and let HCP know
  6. Main component of the growing alternative therapy movement
  7. Used to replace human chemicals that are not produced because of disease or genetic problems
    Animal products
  8. Salts and various elements can have therapeutic effects in the human body
    • Inorganic compounds
    • Flouride (cavities, osteoporosis)
    • Gold (arthritis)
    • Iron (Anemia)
    • Aluminum (antacid)
    • Lithium (Bipolar)
  9. Natural Sources
    Plants, animal products, inorganic compounds
  10. Alter bacteria to produce chemicals that are therapeutic and effective
    Genetic engineering (synthetic source)
  11. Chemicals tested on lab animals
    Preclinical trials
  12. Chemicals tested on human volunteers
    Phase 1
  13. Drug tried on informed patients
    Phase 2
  14. Drug used in vast clinical market
    Phase 3
  15. Continual evaluation of the drug
    Phase 4
  16. Controlled studies show no risk
    Category A
  17. No evidence of risk in humans
    Category B
  18. Risk cannot be ruled out
    Category C
  19. Positive evidence of risk
    Category D
  20. Contraindicated in pregnancy
    Category X
  21. Required labeling to eliminate false or misleading claims
    Pure Food and Drug Act
  22. Gave FDA power of enforcement
    Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
  23. Specified drugs to be labeled " May not be distributed without prescription"
    Durham- Humphrey
  24. Provided strict controls over the distribution, storage and use of drugs with potential for abuse
    Controlled Substance Act
  25. Provided incentives for the development of orphan drugs
    Orphan Drug Act
  26. Controlled substances include
    Narcotics, benzos and anabolic steroids
  27. Problems related to OTC drugs
    Can mask signs and symptoms, can react with prescription drugs, when not taken as directed could result in overdose
  28. The science of dealing with interactions between living organisms and foreign chemicals
  29. Where drug does work on the cell
    Receptor sites
  30. Directly with the receptor to produce effect
  31. Binds receptor sites to block the drug from binding
  32. Amount of a drug that is needed to cause a therapeutic effect
    Critical concentration
  33. Higher dose than that usually used to treatment
    Loading dose
  34. Actual concentration that a drug reached in the body
    Dynamic Equillibrium
  35. Part of oral drugs may be destroyed by enzymes in the stomach and intestines
    First Pass effect
  36. Factors affecting absorption with IM Muscle
    Fat content of muscle and temp
  37. Factors affecting absorption with Inhalation
    integrity of lung lining and if taken properly
  38. Factors affecting absorption with PO
    Acidity of stomach, length of time in stomach
  39. Factors affecting absorption with Topical
    Intact skin
  40. Factors affecting absorption PR
    rectal mucosa (hemorrhoids), length of time retained for absorption (laxatives)
  41. The movement of a drug to the body's tissues
  42. _____ lipid-soluble substances have high affinity for adipose tissue and a ___ tendency to remain in the vascular department
  43. Lipid solubility affects the volume of
  44. Drug molecules that are bound to __________ are pharmacologically inactive
    Plasma proteins
  45. Breaks down medications and helps to prevents medications rom causing adverse effects on the body
  46. The single most important site for biotransformation
  47. Removal of drugs from the body
  48. _____ play the most important role in excretion of medication
  49. The time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one half peak level
    Half- life
  50. Half life is affected by
    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
  51. In determining an appropriate does of a drug for an elderly client _______ should be considered
    Creatine clearance
  52. Creatine clearance refers to
    Kidney function
  53. When the pharmacological effects of one drug are potentiated or dimineshed by another drug
    Drug to Dr ineteraction
  54. Drug to Drug interactions can occur at
    Site of absorption, during distribution, during biotransformation, during excretion, at site of action
  55. Certain foods interact with drugs
    Drug food interactions. Drugs are best taken on an empty stomach
  56. Drugs may alter the results of lab testing
    Drug-laboratory test interaction
  57. Taking multiple drugs at once
Card Set:
Pharmacology Test 1
2013-05-16 01:49:37
Intro Drugs Body Toxic Effects

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