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Name and fully describe two of the five universal axioms of communication.
- 1. You cannot NOT communicate.
- Because we are sending messages non-verbally at all times, it is impossible to not communicate
- 2. Communication is culture-specific.
- Every culture has unique ways of communicating.
Describe why communication is referred to as “transactional”
Communication is transactional because it is a continuous flow of shared meaning. Senders are receiving and receivers are sending equally.
List the three “ego states” in which either or both sender and receiver may be in communication interaction as explained by
the theory of Transactional Analysis
Describe the difference between public speaking and mass communication
- Public speaking:
- - occurs when one person speaks face to face with a live audience. (at least 15 ppl)
- - audience can consist of a small number of people, or hundreds, or thousands.
- - Communication is more formal and deliberate with organized thoughts
- Mass communication:
- - Involves a sender transmitting a message
- - Often hundreds of thousands to billions of people who cannot be gathered in one place
- - Does not have to be a live audience
- - Method of communication can take any medium
Name the three stages of perception
- 2. Organization
- 3. Interpretation/Evaluation
Name and describe three organizational schemata (pockets of knowledge) into
which your brain organizes information from a stimulus before your brain interprets
the stimulus (9 pts.)
- Cultural Schemata: based on your ethnic
- heritage and your familial experiences.
- It is common for people to shake hands in the US when greeting eachother, in Asia it
- is common to bow.
- Situation Schemata: refer to the appropriateness of a behavior in a given context.
- Are public displays of affection appropriate in the church?
- State Schemata: an individual’s physical or
- emotional conditions.
- If you notice a person is grumpy you may wait to ask him a favor.
Define the “halo effect”
The “halo effect” is the process of inferring additional positive qualities to someone based on a known positive quality. When you like somebody, you will generally see the things they do as positive.
Name and describe three influences (filters) on your perception of a communication event
: personal experiences shape how we perceive communication. If you have gone through an event, then you will see others in a similar event differently. (homelessness)
- Third-party influences: our friends, family,
- instructors, and the media, has a huge impact on how we perceive and view
- Physical conditions: our actual physical
- comfort level can determine what aspects around us we will focus on. If a classroom is hot and miserable, students are less likely to pay attention to the teacher.
Identify and describe two functions of language
- Send messages about communicators: our
- vocabulary reveals aspects about our educational background, our age, and even what part of the country we are from.
- Strengthen social bonds: people socialize
- through communication. It also serves as a social function when spoken in unison, i.e. the pledge of allegiance.
Describe the difference in supportive and defensive communication behavior
Supportive communication: communication is likely to be positive and communicators feel comfortable communicating freely. (“I feel like”)
Defensive Communication: communication is likely to be negative and communicators do not feel comfortable communicating freely. (“You are soo”)
Write one example (dialogue) each of a supportive and defensive communication behavior. Define the type of each you write by labeling each “supportive” or “defensive"
- Defensive message:
- You always call me down for using my knife! You treat me like I am an irresponsible and ignorant child who does not know how to use a knife safely. You don’t even know what the law says about carrying a pocket knife! Who are you to call me down and tell me what to do?
- You have no reason to be embarrassed or feel uncomfortable when I use a knife.
- If other people don’t know what the law is then that is their problem…not
- Supportive message:
- Kendra, when you call me down or get upset with me for carrying and using my pocket
- knife I get frustrated because I feel like you are treating me like a child. I am not saying that you are actually calling me a child but it is how it makes me feel. I feel like you think I am irresponsible and unsafe when using my knife. I feel like you are embarrassed by my actions or that you think I am doing something illegal. I do not plan to stop carrying a pocket knife so I would like to understand what your thoughts
- and concerns are about pocket knives.
Name and describe two types of nonverbal communication
: The use of space to communicate. The levels of distance range from intimate, personal, social, and public. (Each persons personal bubble)
- Artifacts: objects that convey information about us. We litter our environment with
- artifacts that communicate about our personality and likes. (the kind of car you drive/how you decorate your home/personal items you display)
Name three functions of nonverbal communication
- Indicate a Relationship
Describe two of the three functions of nonverbal communication you listed in question #12
- Indicate a Relationship: Using nonverbal to
- signify a relationship. Wedding rings symbolize marriage. Holding hands,
- kissing, and hugging indicates the nature of your relationship with someone.
- Reinforcement: nonverbal can reinforce
- verbal messages. If you are angry, you might use tone of voice and volume in
- addition to pounding your fist on a table to reinforce your angry verbal words.